S-1
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 28, 2021.

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

Under

The Securities Act of 1933

 

 

Aligos Therapeutics, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

2836

(Primary Standard Industrial

Classification Code Number)

One Corporate Dr., 2nd Floor

South San Francisco, CA 94080

(800) 466-6059

 

82-4724808

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Lawrence M. Blatt, Ph.D.

Chief Executive Officer

Aligos Therapeutics, Inc.

One Corporate Dr., 2nd Floor

South San Francisco, CA 94080

(800) 466-6059

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

Copies to:

 

Mark V. Roeder

John C. Williams

Latham & Watkins LLP

140 Scott Drive

Menlo Park, California 94025

(650) 328-4600

 

Lucinda Quan, J.D.

Executive Vice President, Chief Business

Officer and General Counsel

Aligos Therapeutics, Inc.

One Corporate Dr., 2nd Floor

South San Francisco, CA 94080

(800) 466-6059

 

Alan F. Denenberg

Emily Roberts

Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP

1600 El Camino Real

Menlo Park, California 94025

(650) 752-2000

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of each class of securities to be registered  

Proposed maximum

aggregate

offering price(1)

 

Amount of

registration fee(2)

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

  $123,234,000   $13,445

 

 

 

(1)   Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Includes shares of common stock that the underwriters have an option to purchase.
(2)   Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) based on an estimate of the proposed maximum aggregate offering price.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where such offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated June 28, 2021

Preliminary prospectus

4,000,000 shares

 

LOGO

Common stock

We are offering 4,000,000 shares of our common stock.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ALGS.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021 was $26.79 per share. The final public offering price will be determined through negotiation between us and the underwriters in the offering and the recent market price used throughout this prospectus may not be indicative of the final offering price.

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and may elect to do so in future filings.

 

     
      Per share      Total  

Public offering price

   $                    $                

Underwriting discounts(1)

   $                    $                

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

   $                    $                

 

(1)   See the section titled “Underwriting” on page 105 for additional information regarding compensation payable to the underwriters.

We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional 600,000 shares from us at the public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions. The underwriters may exercise this right at any time within 30 days after the date of this prospectus.

We have two classes of common stock: the voting common stock offered hereby and non-voting common stock. For a description of the rights of the voting common stock and non-voting common stock, please see “Description of capital stock” beginning on page 93 of this prospectus. We are offering voting common stock in this offering, and unless otherwise noted, all references in this prospectus to our “common stock,” “common shares” or “shares” refers to our voting common stock.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See the section titled “Risk factors” beginning on page 15 of this prospectus to read about factors you should consider before buying shares of our common stock.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares against payment on                , 2021.

 

J.P. Morgan   Jefferies   Piper Sandler
  Cantor  

Prospectus dated                 , 2021


Table of Contents

Table of contents

 

     Page  

Prospectus summary

     1  

The offering

     11  

Risk factors

     15  

Special note regarding forward-looking statements

     84  

Market and industry data

     86  

Use of proceeds

     87  

Dividend policy

     88  

Capitalization

     89  

Dilution

     91  

Description of capital stock

     93  

Shares eligible for future sale

     99  

Material U.S. federal income tax consequences to non-U.S. holders

     101  

Underwriting

     105  

Legal matters

     118  

Experts

     118  

Where you can find more information

     118  

Incorporation of certain information by reference

     118  

Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with information that is different from that, or to make any representations other than those, contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus we may authorize to be delivered or made available to you. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the underwriters are offering to sell shares of common stock and seeking offers to buy shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of this prospectus or any such free writing prospectus or in the applicable document incorporated by reference, as applicable, or other earlier date stated in this prospectus or such free writing prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or such free writing prospectus or any sale of shares of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of our common stock or possession or distribution of this prospectus in that jurisdiction. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus applicable to that jurisdiction.

Aligos® and our logo are some of our trademarks used in this prospectus. This prospectus also includes trademarks, tradenames and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, our trademarks, service marks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® and  symbol, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks, service marks and tradenames.


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Prospectus summary

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including information in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), incorporated by reference in this prospectus, especially the section titled “Risk factors” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto incorporated by reference in this prospectus. As used in this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company,” “the Company”, “Aligos” and “Aligos Therapeutics” refer to Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing novel therapeutics to address unmet medical needs in viral and liver diseases. We utilize our proprietary oligonucleotide and small molecule platforms to develop pharmacologically optimized drug candidates for use in combination regimens designed to achieve improved treatment outcomes. Our lead effort is to develop a functional cure for Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB), which often results in life-threatening conditions such as cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and the most common form of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The most widely used treatment for CHB, nucleos(t)ide analogs, suppresses viral replication but only achieves low rates of functional cure and often requires long-term administration. To address this issue, we have developed a portfolio of differentiated drug candidates for CHB, including an S-antigen Transport-inhibiting Oligonucleotide Polymers (STOPS) molecule, a small molecule Capsid Assembly Modulator (CAM), and oligonucleotides (Antisense Oligonucleotides (ASO) and Small Interfering Ribonucleic Acids (siRNA), each of which is designed against clinically validated targets in the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) life cycle. We believe that combination regimens utilizing our portfolio of CHB drug candidates may lead to higher rates of functional cure. Initial Phase 1a studies in healthy volunteers for our STOPS molecule and CAM have been completed, and Phase 1b proof of concept trials evaluating the properties of our STOPS molecule and CAM in CHB patients are approved in New Zealand, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom and Moldova, and we have begun dosing in patients with both of these compounds. The STOPS drug candidate, ALG-010133, was generally well tolerated in healthy volunteers (HVs) when given as single and multiple (3 weekly) subcutaneous doses of up to 200 mg and 180 mg, respectively. No serious adverse events (SAEs) or treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs) leading to premature discontinuation of study drug occurred. Injection site reactions (ISRs) occurred in 19% of ALG-010133-treated subjects and were generally characterized by localized erythema that was mild to moderate in severity and resolved over time. One ISR that occurred after receiving a single 200 mg dose of ALG-010133 was considered severe based on surface area criteria (>100 cm2). Prophylactic use of topical steroids is being utilized in Phase 1b to potentially mitigate future ISRs. Based on the pharmacokinetic (PK) exposures achieved in HVs, weekly subcutaneous doses of 120 mg and higher will be evaluated in CHB cohorts. Currently, doses of 120 mg and 200 mg given weekly over 12 weeks are being evaluated in two separate cohorts of patients with CHB. For the CAM drug candidate, ALG-000184, preliminary data in both HVs and CHB subjects indicate the drug has predictable PK and was well tolerated, with no SAEs or TEAEs leading to discontinuation reported. Additionally, antiviral activity data in eight treatment naive/currently not treated CHB subjects receiving a daily dose of 100 mg of ALG-000184 for 14 days were promising, showing a mean HBV DNA reduction of 2.9 log10 IU/mL. In the future, we may also conduct clinical trials for our STOPS molecule and CAM and other drug candidates in other countries and territories. Our second area of focus is in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a complex, chronic liver disease where combination regimens may likewise prove beneficial. Our most advanced drug candidate for NASH is ALG-055009, a small molecule THR-ß agonist currently in nonclinical studies to enable a first-in-human clinical trial. We believe ALG-055009 has the potential to become an integral component of

 

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future combination regimens for NASH. Our third area of focus is to develop drug candidates with pan-coronavirus activity, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for COVID-19.

Our oligonucleotide and small molecule platforms allow us to discover drug candidates that can be used to develop potentially best-in-class combination regimens. Oligonucleotide approaches enable specific inhibition of the translation of viral or host genes to affect a desired outcome that would be challenging to achieve with traditional small molecules. We believe the diversity of chemical matter we can generate with these complementary modalities broadens the range of therapeutic targets we can address with our platforms, and provides us with a differentiated set of in-house capabilities to use in developing novel, optimized combination regimens across all of our current areas of focus.

Our approach of combining multiple mechanisms from these distinct modalities is based on the observation that most chronic diseases, whether extrinsic (e.g., HIV and Hepatitis C) or intrinsic (e.g., metabolic syndrome conditions such as hypertension and diabetes), often require combination therapy to achieve optimal outcomes. Combination approaches have the advantage of simultaneously targeting multiple pathways and can act broadly and potentially synergistically. Particularly in the case of viral diseases, the simultaneous use of multiple drugs in combination can increase the barrier to viral resistance. As part of our drug candidate screening paradigm, we perform in vitro combination studies to ensure that none of the combinations we plan to evaluate clinically demonstrate antagonistic interactions.

Our approach to developing best-in-class regimens for our therapeutic areas of interest leverages the most promising modalities from our oligonucleotide and small molecule platforms with the goal to advance rapidly from monotherapy Phase 1 trials into Phase 2 combination trials, which we anticipate starting in 2H of 2022. As a first step, we evaluate the safety and activity of each drug candidate in healthy volunteers and patients with the disease of interest. We intend to then efficiently evaluate drug candidates shown to have activity in Phase 1 in various combinations in Phase 2 platform protocols to enable us to identify optimized combination regimens that will then be evaluated in Phase 3 pivotal trials. The combinations we evaluate may include additional drug candidates or current standard of care. Throughout all phases of clinical development, pre-specified adaptive study rules allow real-time adjustment of trial conduct based on emerging clinical trial data. These practices allow us to gain a rapid understanding of the risk/benefit profile for our individual drug candidates and combination regimens, and iteratively refine our strategy based on emerging data.

Our management team consists of a group of highly collaborative, culturally diverse executives with decades of drug discovery and development experience and a proven track record of success in the areas of viral infections and liver diseases. Most members of our management team have worked together across multiple companies, many for over a decade, and have been collectively involved in the discovery and/or development of a number of drugs that have been successfully commercialized, including Ganovo, Olysio, Sovaldi, Hepsera, Infergen, Valtrex, Sirturo, Neupogen, Andexxa and Esbriet, among others. In support of our management team, we also have assembled an industry-leading board of directors and a world-class group of scientific advisors with significant experience in drug development for viral and liver diseases.

Our pipeline

We are focused on viral and liver diseases, areas in which our employees have expertise and decades of experience. Our most advanced drug candidates are designed for use in CHB to achieve higher rates of functional cure, which we believe will require the use of a combination of drugs with complementary

 

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mechanisms of action (MOA). Each of our CHB modalities plays an important role in disrupting the HBV life cycle and, in nonclinical studies, certain combinations have been shown to act additively or synergistically. We are also advancing a THR-ß agonist for NASH and purpose-built drug candidates for coronaviruses. We also have a collaboration with Merck to discover and develop oligonucleotides against an undisclosed target for the treatment of NASH. As with CHB, we believe combination therapy will be critical for improved patient outcomes in these disease settings and intend to combine our drug candidates with others that have potentially complementary MOAs.

 

 

LOGO

Our most advanced drug candidates are for the treatment of CHB, a disease that affects more than 290 million people worldwide with approximately 30 million people becoming newly infected every year, despite the availability of an efficacious prophylactic vaccine. Approximately 900,000 people worldwide died from complications of CHB in 2015, according to the World Health Organization, and CHB is the primary cause of liver cancer worldwide. Currently approved therapies for CHB include pegylated forms of interferon-alfa (peg-IFNa) and nucleos(t)ide analogs, which are designed to boost the body’s immune response to the virus or inhibit viral replication, respectively. While these therapies have improved treatment outcomes for some patients with CHB, they have not been able to achieve meaningful rates of functional cure, which is the consensus goal of treatment and defined as a sustained loss of Hepatitis B S-antigen (HBsAg) with or without hepatitis B surface antibody seroconversion. Functional cure has been shown to greatly reduce the risk of developing certain other more serious downstream liver conditions, such as cirrhosis and ESLD.

Our clinical development strategy involves evaluating both Hepatitis B E-antigen (HBeAg) positive and HBeAg negative CHB patient populations. HBeAg is typically present in earlier stages of the disease and is associated with higher rates of viral replication. During the natural course of the disease, HBeAg can be cleared and antibodies develop, resulting in an HBeAg negative state where viral replication is often lower. Patients with HBeAg negative CHB are typically older and have more progressive disease-related complications (e.g., fibrosis of the liver). In addition, their immune system is likely to be more exhausted by chronic exposure to HBsAg, which makes viral clearance more difficult. Although we plan to ultimately study both populations, due to the greater availability of patients with HBeAg negative CHB at investigational sites, we intend to study this population first.

 

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LOGO

Multiple steps in the HBV life cycle, including those involving capsid assembly and production and secretion of HBsAg, are known to be essential to sustain HBV infection. We have built a portfolio of CHB drug candidates directed against clinically validated targets at several critical stages of the HBV life cycle. Our CHB portfolio includes:

 

 

STOPS are oligonucleotides that bind to human proteins such as SRSF1, HNRNPA2B1, GRP78, RPLP1, and RPLP2, all of which are thought to play an important role in viral replication and infection. STOPS share structural similarity with nucleic acid polymers (NAPs), which have been reported in clinical trials to significantly reduce circulating HBsAg and result in high rates of functional cure when used in combination with nucleos(t)ide analogs and peg-IFNa. Our most advanced STOPS molecule is ALG-010133, which is currently being evaluated in CHB patients in a Phase 1 clinical trial. Our target is to accomplish at least a 1.0 log10 IU/mL mean reduction in HBV S-antigen levels after 12 weeks of weekly dosing in order to advance ALG-010133 into Phase 2 development. In nonclinical studies, ALG-010133 has demonstrated higher inhibitory activity than that reported for a reference NAP compound that is currently in clinical development.

 

 

CAMs are small molecule antiviral agents that accelerate HBV capsid assembly and inhibit pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) encapsidation, which reduces production of new virions capable of infecting other cells. CAMs may also inhibit the de novo establishment of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), a major factor for the persistence of HBV infection, when introduced at the onset of infection. In clinical trials, other CAM drug candidates have demonstrated significant reductions in HBV DNA and pgRNA. However, it is likely that CAMs will need to be combined with other modalities that affect HBsAg in order to achieve functional cure. Our most advanced CAM drug candidate is ALG-000184, a prodrug of ALG-001075, which in nonclinical studies has demonstrated significantly enhanced potency compared to other CAMs in clinical development of which we are aware. ALG-000184 is currently being evaluated in CHB subjects in an ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial. Antiviral activity data in eight treatment naive/currently not treated CHB subjects receiving a daily dose of 100 mg of ALG-000184 for 14 days were promising, showing a mean HBV DNA reduction of 2.9 log10 IU/mL.

 

 

ASOs are single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules that interfere with viral replication by binding to complementary messenger RNA (mRNA), allowing the combined ASO and mRNA to be degraded by the enzyme RNase H. Using our oligonucleotide discovery capabilities, we identified ALG-020572, an ASO that

 

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targets HBV mRNA and can reduce HBsAg production, which we plan to advance into clinical trials in the second half of 2021. In third-party clinical trials, ASOs targeting HBV mRNA have demonstrated significant reductions in HBsAg. Our ASO approach utilizes state of the art bioinformatics, proprietary stabilization chemistry and liver targeting technology that we believe provides a number of potential benefits compared to other ASO candidates of which we are aware, including increased potency, a higher barrier to resistance and broad genotype coverage. Unconjugated forms of ALG-125755 and ALG-020572 were evaluated for any additive or synergistic effects with respect to S-antigen knockdown, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, in dual combinations with each other as well as with other anti-HBV agents such as nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA) and CAMs, the siRNA or ASO candidate each demonstrated a range of additive or synergistic efforts, depending on the specific combination used. With one another, the unconjugated forms of the siRNA and ASO candidates exhibited synergy in vitro. These in vitro effects were confirmed in an AAV-HBV mouse model of HBV infection, where the ASO and siRNA exhibited additive effects with respect to S-antigen knockdown when combined.

 

 

siRNAs are a class of double-stranded, non-coding RNA that interferes with viral replication by silencing gene expression. Multiple siRNAs have demonstrated significant reductions in HBsAg levels in clinical trials. Our oligonucleotide discovery capabilities resulted in the identification of ALG-125755, an siRNA drug candidate directed at HBV mRNA, which utilizes our proprietary liver targeting technology. In an AAV-HBV mouse study, ALG-125755 was shown to reduce S-antigen by 1.5 log10 IU/mL 28 days after a single subcutaneous dose of 5 mg/kg. This encouraging degree of S-antigen reduction in vivo is corroborated by its activity in vitro with mean EC50 values of 23.9 pM (n=3) and 28.8pM (n=2) in two different cell culture assays. The compound also demonstrated a favorable pharmacological profile in vitro in multiple other cell culture systems.

We believe that a combination of drugs capable of inhibiting HBV DNA replication and RNA packaging (e.g., using CAMs) while simultaneously suppressing HBsAg production (e.g., using STOPS molecules, ASO, and/or siRNA) has the potential to act additively or synergistically and may lead to a higher rate of functional cure. Our clinical development strategy is designed to evaluate safety and antiviral activity as monotherapy prior to evaluating multiple combinations of our CHB assets, with or without other currently available treatment modalities such as nucleos(t)ide analogs or peg-IFNa, to identify optimized combination regimens.

Our second development effort is focused on the treatment of NASH. An estimated 1.5% to 6.5% of the global population, or up to about 450 million people, was believed to have NASH as of 2015 and this percentage is expected to increase significantly in the coming decade due to the adoption of Western dietary habits. In the absence of lifestyle modifications, the inflammation inherent in NASH persists and results in progressive fibrosis of the liver, which may lead to cirrhosis, ESLD, HCC, the need for liver transplant, and death. We believe one of the most promising pharmacologic approaches in development for NASH is a selective agonist of the beta subtype of the thyroid hormone receptor (THR-ß), which, in clinical trials conducted by third parties, has demonstrated significant reduction in liver fat and inflammation, as well as a reduction in lipid levels in the serum, which may have important advantages in the NASH patient population that is at a high risk of cardiovascular co-morbidities. Utilizing our expertise in small molecule drug discovery, we identified ALG-055009, a once-daily oral THR-ß agonist. In nonclinical studies, ALG-055009 has been shown to be substantially more potent compared to other THR-ß agonists currently in development of which we are aware and may avoid some of their potential safety liabilities while having the potential to achieve equal or better efficacy. As a result, we believe ALG-055009 has the potential to become an integral component of combination regimens to treat NASH. We intend to advance ALG-055009 into clinical development in the second half of 2021.

Our third area of focus is to develop pan-coronavirus treatment regimens. SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, which has been identified as a cause of more than 3.9 million deaths worldwide, including 600,000 in the US, as of June 2021. After MERS and SARS (SARS-CoV-1), SARS-CoV-2 is the third

 

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known coronavirus to have crossed over from animal species to humans in the past 20 years and cause significant morbidity and mortality. While multiple vaccines have recently become available, it is unlikely that vaccination will be fully efficacious and widely adopted, indicating that the need for effective therapeutic treatments will remain. Many of the drugs currently being evaluated have not been optimized for the treatment of coronavirus infections or SARS-CoV-2, specifically. There is a need for purpose-built drugs which are suitable across a broad range of coronaviruses, patient populations and clinical settings, including prophylactic and post-exposure settings. We believe that, similar to CHB, a combination of antiviral and/or immunomodulatory drugs which target multiple points in the viral replication cycle offers the best chance of success. To address this urgent, unmet medical need, we are in early stages of development for multiple drug candidates including protease inhibitors that are specifically designed to interact with targets that are highly conserved across multiple coronaviruses. These drug candidates are intended to have pan-coronavirus activity and to be used in combination regimens to maximize their antiviral activity.

Our strategy

Our strategy is to develop pharmacologically optimized drug candidates for use in combination regimens designed to achieve improved treatment outcomes. Our initial areas of focus are viral and liver diseases where our team can leverage their in-depth knowledge and expertise to develop potentially best-in-class combination regimens addressing large areas of unmet medical need. The core elements of our business strategy include:

 

 

Developing improved drug candidates against clinically validated targets;

 

Creating combination regimens to achieve better outcomes;

 

Developing a functional cure for CHB;

 

Expanding our development capabilities and pipeline; and

 

Maximizing the value of our drug candidates.

Intellectual property update

Since the filing of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 (2020 Annual Report), filed with the SEC on March 23, 2021, incorporated herein by reference, we have continued to advance our intellectual property portfolio as noted in this section.

Licensed intellectual property

We have licensed patents and patent applications from various entities, including Emory, Luxna and AM Chemicals. The Emory IP consists of one issued U.S. patent, one pending non-provisional U.S. patent application as well as three issued foreign patents and 36 foreign patent applications. The issued U.S. patent has an expected expiration of March 2037, excluding any potential patent term extension or adjustment. The Luxna IP is in the oligonucleotide chemical space, consisting of three issued U.S. patents, two non-provisional U.S. patent applications and 15 issued foreign patents and five foreign patent applications. We have exclusive rights to use this technology in the development of drug candidates for CHB, as well as rights to certain named targets in NASH and respiratory diseases, including coronaviruses. These U.S. patents have an expected expiration between October 2030 and February 2035, excluding any potential patent term extension or adjustment. Our AM Chemicals license includes one issued U.S. patent, one U.S. non provisional patent application and two foreign patent applications. The issued U.S. patent has an expected expiration of July 2037. Any patent issuing from such non-provisional applications in this patent estate is projected to expire in July 2037, excluding any potential patent term extension or patent term adjustment.

 

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Aligos intellectual property

As of May 31, 2021, we have filed 21 U.S. non-provisional patent applications, 28 U.S. provisional patent applications (excluding any non-expired U.S. provisional applications to which we have claimed priority), 19 PCT applications and 40 foreign patent applications, including pending applications in Argentina and Taiwan. The projected expiration date of any patent that issues from our non-provisional U.S. and foreign applications is between 2039 to 2041, excluding any additional term from a potential patent term extension and/or patent term adjustment.

Drug candidate intellectual property

For our drug candidates, although we have filed patent applications and we generally intend to pursue patent protection covering compositions of matter, methods of making, and methods of use. As of May 31, 2021, we do not own any issued patents directed to ALG-010133, ALG-000184, ALG-020572, ALG-125755 and ALG-055009 drug candidates.

Discovery pipeline intellectual property

Hepatitis B

We have multiple families of applications that include claims to compositions of matter, pharmaceutical compositions and methods of use for the treatment of CHB with our additional drug candidates. As of May 31, 2021, this includes four U.S. non-provisional patent applications, four U.S. provisional patent applications, five PCT patent applications and four foreign patent applications in the small molecule space and two U.S. non-provisional patent applications, two U.S. provisional applications, two PCT patent applications and two foreign patent applications in the oligonucleotide space. These patent families also list combination therapies with our drug candidates and other compounds for treating CHB. Any patent that issues from a non-provisional application in one of these patent families is projected to expire in 2040 to 2041, excluding any potential patent term extension or patent term adjustment.

NASH

We have filed two U.S. non-provisional patent applications, six provisional U.S. patent applications, one PCT patent application and one foreign patent application that include claims to compositions of matter and methods of use with our drug candidates for the treatment of NASH. These applications also disclose combination therapies with our drug candidates and other compounds for treating NASH. Any patent that issues from a non-provisional application in one of these patent families is projected to expire in 2040 to 2041, excluding any potential patent term extension or patent term adjustment.

Coronaviruses

We have filed two U.S. non-provisional patent applications, 13 provisional U.S. patent applications, two PCT patent applications and one foreign patent application that include claims to compositions of matter, pharmaceutical compositions and methods of use for treating coronaviruses. This includes multiple applications covering both small molecule and oligonucleotide approaches. These patent families also include disclosure relating to combination therapy strategies for treating coronaviruses. Any patent that issues from a non-provisional patent application claiming priority to one or more of these U.S. provisional applications is projected to expire in 2041, excluding any potential patent term extension or patent term adjustment.

 

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With respect to both our licensed and our owned intellectual property, we cannot be sure that patents will be granted with respect to any of our pending patent applications or with respect to any patent applications filed by us in the future, nor can we be sure that any current patents or any patents that may be granted to us in the future will be commercially useful in protecting our platforms and drug candidates and the methods used to manufacture them. Moreover, the time required for development, testing and regulatory review of our candidate drug candidates may shorten the length of effective patent protection following commercialization. If we do obtain any patents for our drug candidates, the term of such patents depends upon the legal term of the patents in the countries in which they are obtained. In most countries in which we file, the patent term is 20 years from the earliest date of filing of a non-provisional patent application. In the United States, the patent term of a patent that covers an FDA approved drug or biologic may also be eligible for patent term extension, which permits patent term restoration as compensation for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the expiration of the patent. The length of the patent term extension is related to the length of time that the drug or biologic is under regulatory review. Patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval and only one patent applicable to an approved drug or biologic may be extended. Similar provisions are available in the EU and other foreign jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug or biologic. In the future, if our drug candidates receive FDA approval and if our patent applications relating to such drug candidates issue as patents, we expect to apply for patent term extensions where applicable on patents covering those drugs. We plan to seek patent term extensions to our future issued patents in jurisdictions where these are available, however there is no guarantee that the applicable authorities, including the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), will agree with our assessment of whether these extensions will be granted, and if granted, the length of these extensions. For this and other risks related to our proprietary technology, inventions, improvements, platforms and product candidates, see the section titled “Risk factors—Risks related to intellectual property.”

Trademarks

Our trademark portfolio contains several trademark applications and registrations, including U.S. and foreign, as of May 31, 2021. The trademark portfolio includes the marks ALIGOS and STOPS. The mark STOPS is registered in Australia, the EU, Great Britain and Japan, and is pending in the United States. The mark ALIGOS is registered in the United States, Australia, the EU, Great Britain and Japan.

Risks related to our business

Our ability to execute our business strategy is subject to numerous risks, including those described in the section titled “Risk factors” immediately following this prospectus summary. These risks include the following, among others:

 

 

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history and no products approved for commercial sale. We have incurred significant losses since inception. We expect to incur losses for at least the next several years and may never achieve or maintain profitability, which, together with our limited operating history, makes it difficult to assess our future viability.

 

 

We have never generated revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.

 

 

Even if this offering is successful, we will require substantial additional financing to achieve our goals, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. A failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or commercialization efforts.

 

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We are early in our development efforts, and our business is dependent on the successful development of our current and future drug candidates. If we are unable to advance our current or future drug candidates through clinical trials, obtain marketing approval and ultimately commercialize any drug candidates we develop, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

 

 

Our current or future drug candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs that could delay or halt their clinical development, prevent their marketing approval, limit their commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences.

 

 

We depend on collaborations with third parties for the development of certain of our potential drug candidates, and we may depend on additional collaborations in the future for the development and commercialization of these or other potential candidates. If our collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to capitalize on the market potential of these drug candidates.

 

 

We intend to develop our current drug candidates, and expect to develop other future drug candidates, in combination with other therapies, which exposes us to additional risks.

 

 

We face significant competition, and if our competitors develop and market products that are more effective, safer or less expensive than the drug candidates we develop, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.

 

 

If we and our collaborators are unable to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce sufficient patent and other intellectual property protection for our drug candidates and technology, our competitors could develop and commercialize products and technology similar or identical to ours, and we may not be able to compete effectively in our market or successfully commercialize any drug candidates we may develop.

 

 

Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could negatively impact the success of our business.

 

 

We have entered into licensing agreements with third parties. If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we license intellectual property rights to or from third parties, or these agreements are terminated, or we otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors or licensees, our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be harmed.

 

 

We are highly dependent on our key personnel, and if we are not successful in attracting, motivating and retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.

Corporate information

We were founded in February 2018 as a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at One Corporate Dr., 2nd Floor, South San Francisco, California 94080, and our telephone number is (800) 466-6059.

Our website address is www.aligos.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference herein. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only.

 

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Implications of being an emerging growth company

We are an emerging growth company as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of: (1) December 31, 2025, (2) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (3) the last day of the fiscal year in which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which would occur if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $700.0 million as of the last business day of the second fiscal quarter of such year or (4) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the prior three-year period. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting requirements and is relieved of certain other significant requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. As an emerging growth company:

 

 

we intend to avail ourselves of the exemption from the requirement to obtain an attestation and report from our independent registered public accounting firm on the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;

 

 

we provide less extensive disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements; and

 

 

we do not intend to require stockholder non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements.

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of some accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to use the extended transition period for any other new or revised accounting standards during the period in which we remain an emerging growth company; however, we may adopt certain new or revised accounting standards early.

 

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The offering

 

Common stock offered by us

4,000,000 shares.

 

Underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares from us

We have granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to 600,000 additional shares at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

39,054,867 shares (or 39,654,867 shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares).

 

Non-voting common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

3,092,338 shares.

 

Total common stock and non-voting common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

42,147,205 shares (or 42,747,205 shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares).

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $100.0 million, or approximately $115.1 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, at the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

  We currently expect to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments, to fund the continued advancement, including clinical development and drug manufacturing activities, of our STOPS candidate, ALG-010133, our CAM candidate, ALG-000184, and our ASO candidate, ALG-020572, as well as our nonclinical and research and development activities for our siRNA candidate, ALG-125755, and our NASH THR-ß candidate, ALG-055009, and to fund discovery and research to broaden our pipeline of drug and backup candidates, as well as for other general corporate purposes, which may include the hiring of additional personnel, capital expenditures and the costs of operating as a public company. See the section titled “Use of proceeds” on page 87 for a more complete description of the intended use of proceeds from this offering.

 

Risk factors

See the section titled “Risk factors” beginning on page 15 and other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of factors that you should consider carefully before deciding to invest in our common stock.

 

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Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol

“ALGS”

The total number of shares of common stock and non-voting common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 38,147,205 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2021, and excludes the following:

 

 

5,515,723 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options as of March 31, 2021 having a weighted-average exercise price of $11.40 per share;

 

 

176,600 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options granted after March 31, 2021 having a weighted-average exercise price of $25.93 per share;

 

 

2,921,213 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2020 Incentive Award Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan; and

 

 

750,107 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan.

In addition, unless we specifically state otherwise, all information in this prospectus reflects and assumes the following:

 

 

no exercise of outstanding stock options subsequent to March 31, 2021; and

 

no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of common stock.

 

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Summary consolidated financial data

The following tables present our summary consolidated financial data for the periods and as of the dates indicated. You should read this data together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the information under the captions “Selected consolidated financial data” appearing in our 2020 Annual Report, and “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” appearing in our 2020 Annual Report and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021 (March 2021 Quarterly Report), which are incorporated by reference herein.

We have derived the following summary consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 from our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference herein from our 2020 Annual Report. The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021 and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2021 are derived from our unaudited interim consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference herein from our March 2021 Quarterly Report. The unaudited interim financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States and on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to state fairly our financial position as of March 31, 2021 and our results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our future results and results for the three months ended March 31, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full year or any other period.

 

     
     Year ended December 31,     Three months ended March 31,  
      2019     2020     2020     2021  
     (in thousands, except share and per share data)  

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

        

Revenue from collaborations

   $     $     $     $ 910  

Operating expenses:

        

Research and development

     44,038       79,890       17,302       22,869  

General and administrative

     10,005       17,944       3,419       5,781  

Total operating expenses

     54,043       97,834       20,721       28,650  

Loss from operations

     (54,043     (97,834     (20,721     (27,740

Interest and other income (expense), net

     1,864       (10,548     692       111  

Loss before income tax expense

     (52,179     (108,382     (20,029     (27,629

Income tax expense

     (85     (161           (45

Net loss

     (52,264     (108,543     (20,029     (27,674

Other comprehensive (loss) income:

        

Unrealized gain (loss) on pension plans

     (118     (141     166       (2

Unrealized gain on available-for-sale investments

           68       401       41  

Comprehensive loss

   $ (52,382   $ (108,616   $ (19,462   $ (27,713

Net loss per share, basic and diluted(1)

   $ (26.04   $ (10.87   $ (7.56   $ (0.74

Weighted average shares of common stock, basic and diluted(1)

     2,007,173       9,988,191       2,648,885       37,434,261  

 

 

 

(1)  

For the calculation of our basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders and weighted-average number of shares used in the computation of the per share amounts, see Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in our 2020 Annual Report

 

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incorporated by reference herein and Note 14 to our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included in our March 2021 Quarterly Report incorporated by reference herein.

 

   
     As of March 31, 2021  
      Actual     As
Adjusted(1)
 
     (in thousands)  

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

    

Cash, cash equivalents and investments

   $ 213,415       313,445  

Working capital(2)

     194,595       294,625  

Total assets

     234,540       334,570  

Current liabilities

     (25,231     (25,231

Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion

     (10,183     (10,183

Accumulated deficit

     (202,414     (202,414

Total stockholders’ equity

     195,220       295,250  

 

 

 

(1)   Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021 would increase (decrease) the amount of each of cash, cash equivalents and investments, working capital, total assets and total stockholders’ equity by $3.8 million, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discount and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We may also increase (decrease) the number of shares we are offering. Each increase (decrease) of 1,000,000 in the number of shares we are offering would increase (decrease) the amount of each of cash, cash equivalents and investments, working capital, total assets and total stockholders’ equity by $25.2 million, assuming the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021 remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discount and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The as adjusted information is illustrative only and we will adjust this information based on the actual public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

 

(2)   We define working capital as current assets less current liabilities. See our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included in our March 2021 Quarterly Report incorporated by reference herein for details regarding our current assets and current liabilities.

The preceding table presents our consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2021:

 

 

on an actual basis;

 

 

on an as adjusted basis to give effect to the sale of 4,000,000 shares of common stock in this offering at the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021 after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

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Risk factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information in this prospectus or incorporated by reference herein before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could harm our business, competitive position, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Many of the following risks and uncertainties and those contained in the documents incorporated by reference herein are, and will be, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and any worsening of the global business and economic environment as a result. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations and the market price of our common stock.

Risks related to our limited operating history, financial position and need for additional capital

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history and no products approved for commercial sale. We have incurred significant losses since inception. We expect to incur losses for at least the next several years and may never achieve or maintain profitability, which, together with our limited operating history, makes it difficult to assess our future viability.

Biopharmaceutical product development is a highly speculative undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, and we have only a limited operating history upon which you can evaluate our business and prospects. We currently have no products approved for commercial sale, have not generated any revenue from sales of products and have incurred losses in each year since our inception in February 2018. In addition, we have limited experience as a company and have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully overcome many of the risks and uncertainties frequently encountered by companies in new and rapidly evolving fields, particularly in the biopharmaceutical industry. Only two of our drug candidates, ALG-010133 and ALG-000184, are currently in clinical development.

Since inception, we have incurred significant net losses. Our net losses were $27.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and $108.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. As of March 31, 2021, we had a total stockholders’ equity of $195.2 million. We have funded our operations to date primarily with proceeds from the sale of common stock, preferred stock and convertible notes. To date, we have devoted substantially all of our resources to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, acquiring and discovering development programs, securing intellectual property rights and conducting discovery, research and development activities for our programs. We have not yet demonstrated our ability to successfully complete any clinical trials, including pivotal clinical trials, obtain marketing approvals, manufacture a commercial-scale product or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Our drug candidates will require substantial additional development time and resources before we will be able to apply for or receive regulatory approvals and, if approved, begin generating revenue from product sales. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future.

We have never generated revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.

Our ability to generate revenue from product sales and achieve profitability depends on our ability, alone or with our collaboration partners, to successfully complete the development of, and obtain the regulatory approvals necessary to commercialize, our drug candidates. We do not anticipate generating revenue from

 

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product sales for the next several years, if ever. Our ability to generate revenue from product sales depends heavily on our and our current and potential future collaborators’ success in:

 

 

completing clinical and nonclinical development of drug candidates and programs and identifying and developing new drug candidates;

 

 

seeking and obtaining marketing approvals for any drug candidates that we develop;

 

 

launching and commercializing drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval by establishing a sales force, marketing, medical affairs and distribution infrastructure or, alternatively, collaborating with a commercialization partner;

 

 

achieving adequate coverage and reimbursement by third-party payors for drug candidates that we develop;

 

 

establishing and maintaining supply and manufacturing relationships with third parties that can provide adequate, in both amount and quality, products and services to support clinical development and the market demand for drug candidates that we develop, if approved;

 

 

obtaining market acceptance of drug candidates that we develop as viable treatment options;

 

 

addressing any competing technological and market developments;

 

 

negotiating favorable terms in any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements into which we may enter and performing our obligations in such collaborations;

 

 

maintaining, protecting, enforcing and expanding our portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets and know-how;

 

 

defending against third-party interference, infringement or other intellectual property-related claims, if any; and

 

 

attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel.

Even if one or more of the drug candidates that we develop is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any approved drug candidate. Our expenses could increase beyond expectations if we are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the FDA), the European Medicines Agency (the EMA), or other regulatory agencies to perform clinical trials or studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate. Even if we are able to generate revenue from the sale of any approved products, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations.

Even if this offering is successful, we will require substantial additional financing to achieve our goals, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. A failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or commercialization efforts.

Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since our inception. Since our inception, we have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in research and development activities for our initial nonclinical and clinical drug candidates. Nonclinical studies and clinical trials and additional research and development activities will require substantial funds to complete. As of March 31, 2021, we had cash, cash equivalents and investments of $213.4 million. In October 2020, we issued an aggregate of 3,569,630 shares of our Series B-2 redeemable convertible preferred stock in the second tranche of our Series B convertible preferred stock financing for aggregate proceeds to us of $40.0 million. In addition, we have received net proceeds of $151.4 million from the sale of an aggregate of 11,150,000 shares of our common stock on

 

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October 20, 2020 and on November 5, 2020 in connection with our IPO. We expect to continue to spend substantial amounts to continue the nonclinical and clinical development of our current and future programs. If we are able to gain marketing approval for drug candidates that we develop, we will require significant additional amounts of cash in order to launch and commercialize such drug candidates. In addition, other unanticipated costs may arise. Because the design and outcome of our planned and anticipated clinical trials is highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amounts necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of any drug candidate we develop.

Our future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:

 

 

the scope, progress, results and costs of researching and developing our drug candidates and programs, and of conducting nonclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

 

the timing of, and the costs involved in, obtaining marketing approvals for drug candidates we develop if clinical trials are successful;

 

 

the cost of commercialization activities for our current drug candidates, and any future drug candidates we develop, whether alone or in collaboration, including marketing, sales and distribution costs if our current drug candidates or any future drug candidate we develop is approved for sale;

 

 

the cost of manufacturing our current and future drug candidates for clinical trials in preparation for marketing approval and commercialization;

 

 

our ability to establish and maintain strategic licenses or other arrangements and the financial terms of such agreements including milestone payments to our licensors;

 

 

the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, expanding, defending and enforcing patent claims, including litigation costs and the outcome of such litigation;

 

 

the timing, receipt and amount of sales of, or profit share or royalties on, our future products, if any;

 

 

the emergence of competing therapies for hepatological indications and viral diseases and other adverse market developments; and

 

 

any acquisitions or in-licensing of other programs or technologies.

We expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements and other marketing or distribution arrangements. In addition, we may seek additional capital to take advantage of favorable market conditions or strategic opportunities even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. Based on our research and development plans, we expect our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments will enable us to fund our operations for at least 12 months following the date of this prospectus. However, our operating plan may change as a result of many factors currently unknown to us, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned. Moreover, it is particularly difficult to estimate with certainty our future expenses given the dynamic nature of our business, the COVID-19 pandemic and the macro-economic environment generally.

Our ability to raise additional funds will depend on financial, economic and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to rapidly evolve and has already resulted in a significant disruption of global financial markets. If the disruption persists or deepens, we could be unable to access additional capital, which could negatively affect our ability to consummate certain corporate

 

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development transactions or other important, beneficial or opportunistic investments. If additional funds are not available to us when we need them, on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, we may be required to:

 

 

delay, limit, reduce or terminate nonclinical studies, clinical trials or other research and development activities or eliminate one or more of our development programs altogether; or

 

 

delay, limit, reduce or terminate our efforts to establish manufacturing and sales and marketing capabilities or other activities that may be necessary to commercialize any future approved products, or reduce our flexibility in developing or maintaining our sales and marketing strategy.

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which will make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our results to fall below expectations.

Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly, which will make it difficult for us to predict our future results. These fluctuations may occur due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including:

 

 

the timing and cost of, and level of investment in, research, development and commercialization activities, which may change from time to time;

 

 

the timing and status of enrollment for our clinical trials;

 

 

the timing of regulatory approvals, if any, in the United States and internationally;

 

 

the timing of expanding our operational, financial and management systems and personnel, including personnel to support our clinical development, quality control, manufacturing and commercialization efforts and our operations as a public company;

 

 

the cost of manufacturing, as well as building out our supply chain, which may vary depending on the quantity produced, and the terms of any agreements we enter into with third-party suppliers;

 

 

the timing and amount of any milestone, royalty or other payments due under any current or future collaboration or license agreement, including our existing license agreements with Emory University (Emory) and Luxna Biotech Co., Ltd. (Luxna);

 

 

coverage and reimbursement policies with respect to any future approved products, and potential future drugs that compete with our products;

 

 

the timing and cost to establish a sales, marketing, medical affairs and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain marketing approval and intend to commercialize on our own or jointly with current or future collaborators;

 

 

expenditures that we may incur to acquire, develop or commercialize additional products and technologies;

 

 

the level of demand for any future approved products, which may vary significantly over time;

 

 

future accounting pronouncements or changes in accounting principles or our accounting policies; and

 

 

the timing and success or failure of nonclinical studies and clinical trials for our drug candidates or competing drug candidates, or any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or collaboration partners.

The cumulative effects of these factors could result in large fluctuations and unpredictability in our quarterly and annual operating results. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. Investors should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance.

 

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This variability and unpredictability could also result in our failing to meet the expectations of industry or financial analysts or investors for any period. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of analysts or investors or below any forecasts we may provide to the market, or if the forecasts we provide to the market are below the expectations of analysts or investors, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Such a stock price decline could occur even if we have met any previously publicly stated revenue or earnings guidance we may provide.

Our business could be materially adversely affected by the effects of health pandemics or epidemics, including the current outbreak of COVID-19 and future coronavirus outbreaks, and in particular in regions where we or third parties on which we rely have significant manufacturing facilities, concentrations of clinical trial sites or other business operations, including the San Francisco Bay Area where our headquarters are located.

Our business could be materially adversely affected by the effects of health pandemics or epidemics, including the current outbreak of COVID-19, which the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic and which has prompted severe lifestyle and commercial restrictions aimed at reducing the spread of the disease. In March 2020, the San Francisco Bay Area counties issued a joint shelter-in-place order, which was subsequently followed by a California state-wide shelter order, and other state and local governments implemented similar orders which, among other things, directed individuals to shelter at their places of residence, directed businesses and governmental agencies to cease non-essential operations at physical locations, prohibited certain non-essential gatherings, and ordered cessation of non-essential travel. As a result of these developments, we implemented work-from-home policies for most of our employees. Since the availability of COVID-19 vaccines, the majority of our U.S. employees have been fully vaccinated and as a result, we are allowing such employees to return to work at our U.S. facility. However, as the global COVID-19 pandemic and orders and guidance from state and local governments continue to evolve, we may need to reverse course and again implement work-from-home policies as necessary. Government-imposed quarantines and our work-from-home policies may negatively impact productivity, disrupt our business and delay our clinical programs and timelines, the magnitude of which will depend, in part, on the length and severity of the restrictions, the potential impact of changing government orders in response to upticks in COVID-19 cases and other limitations on our ability to conduct our business in the ordinary course. Although we do not anticipate any impacts to our clinical programs, these and similar, and perhaps more severe, disruptions in our operations could negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition in the future.

Quarantines, shutdowns and shelter-in-place and similar government orders related to COVID-19 or other infectious diseases, or the perception that such events, orders or other restrictions on the conduct of business operations could occur, could impact personnel at third-party manufacturing facilities in the United States and other countries, or the availability or cost of materials, which would disrupt our supply chain. Although we do not anticipate any clinical supply issues or concerns for our planned clinical trials, restrictions resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak may disrupt our supply chain in the future and delay or limit our ability to obtain sufficient materials for our drug candidates.

In addition, our current clinical trial and planned clinical trials may be affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Site initiation and patient enrollment may be delayed due to prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID-19 pandemic, and potential patients may not be able or willing to comply with clinical trial protocols, whether due to quarantines impeding patient movement or interrupting healthcare services, or due to potential patient concerns regarding interactions with medical facilities or staff. Similarly, our ability to recruit and retain principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19, may be delayed or disrupted, which may adversely impact our clinical trial operations.

In addition, the global COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected, and any future significant outbreak of contagious diseases in the human population could similarly adversely affect, the economies and financial

 

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markets of many countries, including the United States, resulting in an economic downturn that could suppress demand for our future products. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

In addition, while the duration and severity of the effects of COVID-19 may be difficult to assess or predict, a continuing widespread pandemic could result in significant disruption of global financial markets, reducing our ability to access capital, which could negatively affect our liquidity and ability to progress our operations. In addition, a recession, down-turn or market correction resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic could materially adversely affect the value of our common stock.

Risks related to product development and regulatory process

We are early in our development efforts, and our business is dependent on the successful development of our current and future drug candidates. If we are unable to advance our current or future drug candidates through clinical trials, obtain marketing approval and ultimately commercialize any drug candidates we develop, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

Our clinical development efforts across our drug candidates are in an early stage. We have initiated clinical trials for our most advanced drug candidates, ALG-010133 and ALG-000184, respectively, in New Zealand, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom and Moldova. Our other programs are in the discovery or nonclinical development stage. We have invested substantially all of our efforts and financial resources in the identification of targets and nonclinical development of therapeutics to address hepatological indications and viral diseases. However, the biology of these indications and diseases is complex and not completely understood, and our current and future drug candidates may never achieve expected or functional levels of efficacy or achieve an acceptable safety profile. Our use of clinically validated targets to pursue treatments of these indications and diseases does not guarantee efficacy or safety or necessarily reduce the risk that our current or future drug candidates will not achieve expected or functional levels of efficacy or achieve an acceptable safety profile.

The success of our business, including our ability to finance our company and generate revenue from products in the future, which we do not expect will occur for several years, if ever, will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of the drug candidates we develop, which may never occur. Our current drug candidates, and any future drug candidates we develop, will require additional nonclinical and clinical development, management of clinical, nonclinical and manufacturing activities, marketing approval in the United States and other markets, demonstrating effectiveness to pricing and reimbursement authorities, obtaining sufficient manufacturing supply for both clinical development and commercial production, building of a commercial organization, and substantial investment and significant marketing efforts before we generate any revenues from product sales.

As an organization, we have not yet completed any clinical trials for any of our drug candidates. Each of our lead drug candidates, ALG-010133 and ALG-000184, is currently being evaluated in Phase 1 clinical trials in New Zealand, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom and Moldova. As a company, we have limited experience in preparing, submitting and prosecuting regulatory filings. Specifically, we have not previously submitted a new drug application (NDA) to the FDA or similar approval filings to a comparable foreign regulatory authority for any drug candidate. An NDA or other relevant regulatory filing must include extensive nonclinical and clinical data and supporting information to establish that the drug candidate is safe and effective for each desired indication. The NDA or other comparable regulatory filing must also include significant information regarding the chemistry, manufacturing and controls for the product. We have had limited interactions with the FDA and cannot be certain how many clinical trials of any of our drug candidates will be required or whether the FDA will agree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials. In addition, we cannot be certain that our current or future drug candidates will be successful in clinical trials such that the information contained in an NDA or

 

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comparable regulatory filing would support approval, and thus we cannot guarantee that any of our drug candidates will receive regulatory approval. Further, even if our current or future drug candidates are successful in clinical trials, such candidates may not receive regulatory approval. If we do not receive regulatory approvals for current or future drug candidates, we may not be able to continue our operations. Even if we successfully obtain regulatory approval to market a drug candidate, our revenue will depend, in part, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which we gain regulatory approval and have commercial rights, as well as the availability of competitive products, third-party reimbursement and adoption by physicians.

We plan to seek regulatory approval to commercialize our drug candidates both in the United States and in select foreign countries. While the scope of regulatory approval in other countries is generally similar to that in the United States, in order to obtain separate regulatory approval in other countries we must comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of such countries regarding safety and efficacy. Other countries also have their own regulations governing, among other things, clinical trials and commercial sales, as well as pricing and distribution of drugs, and we may be required to expend significant resources to obtain regulatory approval and to comply with ongoing regulations in these jurisdictions.

The success of our current and future drug candidates will depend on many factors, which may include the following:

 

 

sufficiency of our financial and other resources to complete the necessary nonclinical studies and clinical trials, and our ability to raise any additional required capital on acceptable terms, or at all;

 

 

our ability to develop and successfully utilize our drug discovery platforms;

 

 

the timely and successful completion of our nonclinical studies and clinical trials, which may be significantly slower or cost more than we currently anticipate and will depend substantially upon the performance of third-party contractors;

 

 

acceptance of investigational new drug applications (INDs), CTAs and/or similar applications in other jurisdictions for our planned and future clinical trials;

 

 

whether we are required by the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory agency to conduct additional clinical trials or other studies beyond those planned to support approval of our drug candidates;

 

 

successful enrollment and completion of clinical trials;

 

 

successful data from our clinical program that supports an acceptable risk-benefit profile of our drug candidates in the intended populations;

 

 

receipt and maintenance of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;

 

 

establishing agreements with third-party manufacturers for clinical supply for our clinical trials and commercial manufacturing, if our drug candidates are approved;

 

 

our ability, and the ability of any third parties with whom we contract, to remain in good standing with regulatory agencies and develop, validate and maintain commercially viable manufacturing processes that are compliant with current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs);

 

 

entry into collaborations to further the development of our drug candidates in select indications or geographies;

 

 

obtaining, maintaining and expanding our portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets and know-how;

 

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enforcing and defending our intellectual property rights and having and successfully executing an intellectual property life cycle management strategy that supports long-term product development and commercialization goals;

 

 

obtaining and maintaining regulatory exclusivity for our drug candidates;

 

 

successfully launching commercial sales of our drug candidates, if approved;

 

 

acceptance of the drug candidate’s benefits and uses, if approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;

 

 

the prevalence, duration and severity of potential side effects or other safety issues experienced with our drug candidates following approval;

 

 

effectively competing with other therapies; and

 

 

obtaining and maintaining healthcare coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors.

If we are not successful with respect to one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully obtain approval of or commercialize the drug candidates we develop, which would materially harm our business. If we do not receive marketing approvals for our current or future drug candidates, we may not be able to continue our operations. Even if regulatory approvals are obtained, we may never be able to successfully commercialize any products. Accordingly, we cannot provide assurances that we will be able to generate sufficient revenue through the sale of products to continue our business.

Nonclinical development is uncertain. Our nonclinical programs may experience delays or may never advance to clinical trials, which would adversely affect our ability to obtain regulatory approvals or commercialize our drug candidates on a timely basis or at all, which would have an adverse effect on our business.

In order to obtain approval from the FDA and other major regulatory agencies in non-U.S. countries to market a new drug candidate, we must demonstrate proof of safety and efficacy in humans. To meet these requirements, we will have to conduct adequate and well-controlled clinical trials. Before we can commence clinical trials for a drug candidate, we must complete extensive nonclinical studies that support our planned INDs or CTAs in the United States and other countries. At this time, we have two drug candidates (ALG-010133 and ALG-000184) being evaluated in Phase 1 clinical trials in New Zealand, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom and Moldova. The rest of our programs are in nonclinical research or earlier stages of development, including our other chronic hepatitis B (CHB) drug candidates, our nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) drug candidate and our coronavirus drug candidates. We cannot be certain of the timely completion or outcome of our nonclinical studies and cannot predict if the FDA or other regulatory authorities will accept our proposed clinical programs or if the outcome of our nonclinical studies will ultimately support further development of our programs. In addition, the FDA may decline to accept the data we obtain from foreign clinical studies in support of an IND or NDA in the United States, which may require us to repeat or conduct additional nonclinical studies or clinical trials that we did not anticipate in the United States. As a result, we cannot be sure that we will be able to submit INDs in the United States, or CTAs or similar applications in other jurisdictions, on the timelines we expect, if at all, and we cannot be sure that submission of INDs, CTAs or similar applications will result in the FDA or other regulatory authorities allowing additional clinical trials to begin.

Conducting nonclinical testing is a complex, lengthy, time-consuming and expensive process. The length of time may vary substantially according to the type, complexity and novelty of the program, and often can take several years or more per program. Delays associated with programs for which we are directly conducting nonclinical studies may cause us to incur additional operating expenses. Moreover, we may be affected by delays

 

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associated with the studies of certain programs that are the responsibility of potential future partners, if any, over which we have no control. The commencement and rate of completion of nonclinical studies and clinical trials for a drug candidate may be delayed by many factors, including:

 

 

inability or failure by us or third parties to comply with regulatory requirements, including the requirements of good laboratory practice (GLP);

 

 

inability to generate sufficient nonclinical or other in vivo or in vitro data to support the initiation of clinical studies;

 

 

delays in reaching a consensus with regulatory agencies on study design and obtaining regulatory authorization to commence clinical trials;

 

 

obtaining sufficient quantities of our drug candidates for use in nonclinical studies and clinical trials from third-party suppliers on a timely basis;

 

 

delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including due to reduced workforce productivity as a result of our implementation of a temporary work-from-home policy or illness among personnel, or due to delays at our third-party contract research organizations throughout the world for similar reasons or due to restrictions imposed by applicable governmental authorities; and

 

 

delays due to other global-scale potentially catastrophic events, including other pandemics, terrorism, war, and climate changes.

Moreover, even if candidates from our drug programs advance into clinical trials, our development efforts may not be successful, and clinical trials that we conduct or that third parties conduct on our behalf may not demonstrate sufficient safety or efficacy to obtain the requisite regulatory approvals for any drug candidates we develop. Even if we obtain positive results from nonclinical studies or initial clinical trials, we may not achieve the same success in future trials.

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, the EMA and comparable foreign authorities are lengthy, time-consuming, complex and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our drug candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

The time required to obtain approval by the FDA, the EMA and comparable foreign authorities is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a drug candidate’s clinical development and may vary across jurisdictions. We have not obtained regulatory approval for any drug candidate and it is possible that none of our current or future drug candidates will ever obtain regulatory approval.

Our current and future drug candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval for many reasons, including the following:

 

 

the FDA, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials;

 

 

we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a drug candidate is safe or effective for its proposed indication;

 

 

the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;

 

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we may be unable to demonstrate that a drug candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;

 

 

the FDA, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from clinical trials or nonclinical studies;

 

 

the data collected from clinical trials of our drug candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of an NDA to the FDA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States, the European Union or elsewhere;

 

 

the FDA, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may find deficiencies with or fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and

 

 

the approval policies or regulations of the FDA, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

This lengthy approval process as well as the unpredictability of clinical trial results may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market any drug candidate we develop, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects. The FDA, the EMA and other comparable foreign authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process, and in determining when or whether regulatory approval will be obtained for any drug candidate that we develop. Even if we believe the data collected from future clinical trials of our drug candidates are promising, such data may not be sufficient to support approval by the FDA, the EMA or any other regulatory authority.

In addition, even if we were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve any of our drug candidates for fewer or more limited indications than we request, may not approve the price we intend to charge for our products, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, or may approve a drug candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims that we believe are necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that drug candidate. Any of the foregoing scenarios could materially harm the commercial prospects for our drug candidates.

We cannot be certain that any of our programs will be successful in clinical trials or receive regulatory approval. Further, drug candidates we develop may not receive regulatory approval even if they are successful in clinical trials. If we do not receive regulatory approvals for our drug candidates, we may not be able to continue our operations.

Clinical product development involves a lengthy and expensive process, with uncertain outcomes. We may experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of our current and future drug candidates, which could result in increased costs to us, delay or limit our ability to generate revenue and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

To obtain the requisite regulatory approvals to commercialize any of our drug candidates, we must demonstrate through extensive nonclinical studies and clinical trials that our products are safe and effective in humans. Clinical trials are expensive and can take many years to complete, and their outcomes are inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process and our future clinical trial results may not be successful.

We may experience delays in completing our clinical trials and initiating or completing additional clinical trials. We may also experience numerous unforeseen events prior to, during, or as a result of our nonclinical studies

 

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or clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize the drug candidates we develop, including:

 

 

regulators, Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) or ethics committees may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site;

 

 

we may experience delays in reaching, or fail to reach, agreement on acceptable terms with prospective trial sites and prospective contract research organizations (CROs);

 

 

the number of patients required for clinical trials may be larger than we anticipate;

 

 

it may be difficult to enroll a sufficient number of suitable patients, or enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or participants may drop out of these clinical trials or fail to return for post-treatment follow-up at a higher rate than we anticipate;

 

 

our third-party contractors may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all, or may deviate from the clinical trial protocol or drop out of the trial, which may require us to add new clinical trial sites or investigators;

 

 

the supply or quality of materials for drug candidates we develop or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials may be insufficient or inadequate; and

 

 

we may experience disruptions by man-made or natural disasters or public health pandemics or epidemics or other business interruptions, including the current COVID-19 pandemic and future outbreaks of the disease.

We could encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the IRBs or ethics committees of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, by a Data Safety Monitoring Board for such trial or by the FDA or other regulatory authorities. Such authorities may impose such a suspension or termination due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a product, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. Many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of marketing approval of our drug candidates.

Further, we are currently conducting a clinical trial for each of ALG-010133 and ALG-000184 in New Zealand, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom and Moldova. We may also in the future conduct clinical trials for ALG-010133, ALG-000184 and other drug candidates in other countries and territories which presents additional risks that may delay completion of our clinical trials. These risks include the possibility that we could be required to conduct additional nonclinical studies before initiating any clinical trials, may be unable to enroll and retain patients as a result of differences in healthcare services, research guidelines or cultural customs, or may face additional administrative burdens associated with comparable foreign regulatory schemes, as well as political and economic risks relevant to such foreign countries.

If we experience termination or delays in the completion of any clinical trial of our drug candidates, the commercial prospects of our drug candidates will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues from any of these drug candidates will be delayed. In addition, any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our drug candidate development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues. Significant clinical trial delays could also allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do, shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our drug candidates, impair our ability to commercialize our drug candidates and harm our business and results of operations.

 

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Specifically, the clinical trial sites for our current drug trials, including for ALG-010133 and ALG-000184, and future planned trials may be affected by the COVID-19 outbreak due to prioritization of hospital resources toward COVID-19 efforts, travel or quarantine restrictions imposed by national, federal, state or local governments, and the inability to access sites for initiation and patient monitoring and enrollment. As a result, patient screening, new patient enrollment, monitoring and data collection may be affected or delayed. Some of our third-party manufacturers we use for the supply of materials for drug candidates or other materials necessary to manufacture product to conduct clinical trials are located in countries affected by COVID-19, and, should they experience disruptions such as temporary closures or suspension of services, we would likely experience delays in advancing these trials.

Separately, principal investigators for our clinical trials serve as scientific advisors or consultants to us from time to time and may receive cash or equity compensation in connection with such services. If these relationships and any related compensation result in perceived or actual conflicts of interest, or a regulatory authority concludes that the financial relationship may have affected the interpretation of the clinical trial, the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site may be questioned and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized, which could result in the delay or rejection of any applications we submit. Any such delay or rejection could prevent or delay us from commercializing our current or future drug candidates.

Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or could lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our drug candidates or result in the development of our drug candidates being terminated.

Our pursuit of potential treatments for NASH is at an early stage and we may be unable to produce a therapy that successfully treats NASH. Even if successful, we may be unable to obtain regulatory approval for and successfully commercialize our drug candidates.

We have invested, and will continue to invest, a significant portion of our time and financial resources in the pursuit of a treatment for NASH. If we cannot successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize our drug candidates for the treatment of NASH, our business may be harmed. The mechanism of action of our NASH drug candidates is complex, and we do not know the degree to which it will translate into a therapeutic benefit, if any, in NASH or any other indication, and we do not know the degree to which the complex mechanism of action may contribute to long-term safety issues or adverse events when our drug candidates are taken for prolonged periods, as is inherent in the treatment of NASH.

In addition, the standards implemented by clinical or regulatory agencies may change at any time and we cannot be certain what efficacy endpoints the FDA or foreign clinical or regulatory agencies may require at the time we plan to conduct clinical trials with respect to NASH or any other applicable indication. Also, if we are able to obtain accelerated approval of our drug candidates based on a liver biopsy endpoint, we may be required to conduct a post-approval clinical outcomes trial to confirm the clinical benefit of the drug candidate; if any such post-approval trial is not successful, we would not be able to continue marketing the product.

If we are successful and any of our drug candidates are approved for the treatment of NASH, our drug candidates will likely compete with products that may be approved for the treatment of NASH prior to our drug candidates and/or that have greater efficacy than our drug candidates, either alone or in combination. Behavioral modifications, such as diet and exercise, can also decrease or eliminate the demand for our potential NASH treatments.

 

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Our pursuit of potential therapies for COVID-19 is at an early stage.

In response to the outbreak of COVID-19, the disease caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, we are pursuing various potential therapies to address the disease, including protease inhibitors and oligonucleotides. Our identification and development of these potential therapies is at an early stage, and we may be unable to produce in a timely manner a therapy that successfully treats the virus or that has broad clinical applicability, if at all.

For example, in June 2020, we entered into a Research, Licensing and Commercialization Agreement (the KU Leuven Agreement) with Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven) under which we are collaborating with KU Leuven’s Rega Institute for Medical Research, as well as its Centre for Drug Design and Discovery, to research, develop, manufacture and commercialize potential protease inhibitors for the treatment of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. We are in the earliest stages of our collaboration under the KU Leuven Agreement. The KU Leuven Agreement may not result in a therapy that successfully treats SARS-CoV-2. Further, if the KU Leuven Agreement does result in such a therapy, the therapy may not be developed and commercialized in a timely manner.

We are also committing significant financial resources and personnel to the development of potential therapies for COVID-19, which may cause delays in or otherwise negatively impact our other development programs, despite uncertainties surrounding the longevity and extent of COVID-19 as a global health concern. COVID-19 may be substantially eradicated prior to our development of a successful therapy or a vaccine may be developed that is highly efficacious and widely adopted, reducing or eliminating the need for therapies to treat the disease. For instance, the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2, the adenovirus type 26 (Ad26) vaccine by Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, and Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized for emergency use and are in the process of being widely being administered in various countries throughout the world, which could adversely impact the need for our potential COVID-19 therapies. Further, while we hope to develop potential therapies that are effective against other or future coronaviruses, in addition to SARS-CoV-2, we cannot be certain this will be the case. If our potential therapies are not effective against other or future coronaviruses, the value and/or sales potential of our therapies will be reduced or eliminated. Our business could be negatively impacted by our allocation of significant resources to a global health threat that is unpredictable and could rapidly dissipate or against which our potential therapies, if developed, may not be partially or fully effective, and may ultimately prove unsuccessful or unprofitable. Furthermore, there are no assurances that our therapy will be approved for inclusion in government stockpile programs, which may be material to the commercial success of any approved coronavirus-related drug candidate, either in the United States or abroad.

We will also need to enter into manufacturing arrangements in the future in order to create a supply chain for our COVID-19 drug candidates that can adequately support demand. Even if we are successful in developing and manufacturing an effective treatment for COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 virus could develop resistance to our treatment, which could affect any long-term demand or sales potential for our potential therapies.

In addition, another party may be successful in producing a more efficacious therapy for COVID-19 or a therapy with a more convenient or preferred route of administration or in producing a therapy in a more timely manner, which may lead to the diversion of funding away from us and toward other companies or lead to decreased demand for our potential therapies. For instance, Pfizer Inc. recently announced its COVID-19 experimental drug (an orally administered protease inhibitor) which entered the clinic in March 2021, may be available by the end of 2021. Similarly, Merck (together with Ridgeback Bio), is developing the drug Molnupiravir, an antiviral drug currently in a Phase 3 clinical trial which has the potential to become the first oral COVID-19 treatment. In such an event, the value and/or market potential of our COVID-19 protease inhibitor program which is further behind in terms of development process may be adversely impacted. Further, other therapies that are more affordable than our potential therapies may be used to treat COVID-19,

 

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including existing generic drugs, which could also hurt the funding of and demand for our potential therapies. In addition to BioNTech SE (together with Pfizer Inc.), Moderna, Inc. and Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, there are efforts by several other public and private entities to develop a therapy or vaccine for COVID-19, including Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Atea Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (together with Roche), Incyte Corporation, Sanofi S.A., Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Amgen Inc. (together with Adaptive Biotechnologies Corporation), Abcellera Biologics, Inc. (together with Eli Lilly and Company), Vir Biotechnology, Inc. (together with Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, GSK, Biogen Inc. and WuXi Biologics Ltd.), Altimmune, Inc., AstraZeneca PLC (together with Oxford University), GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) (together with Sanofi S.A.), Heat Biologics, Inc., Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Novavax, Inc., Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., Synairgen plc, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, and Vaxart, Inc., many of which are further along in the development process than we are. These other entities may be more successful at developing, manufacturing or commercializing a therapy for COVID-19, especially given that several of these other organizations are much larger than we are and have access to larger pools of capital, including U.S. government funding, and broader manufacturing infrastructure. The success or failure of other entities, or perceived success or failure, may adversely impact our ability to obtain any future funding for our development and manufacturing efforts or to ultimately commercialize a therapy for COVID-19, if approved.

The regulatory pathways for our drug candidates targeting SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, are continually evolving, and may result in unexpected or unforeseen challenges.

Our drug candidates targeting SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, are in the early discovery stages. The speed at which companies and institutions are acting to create and test many therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19 is unusually rapid, and evolving or changing plans or priorities within the FDA, including changes based on new knowledge of COVID-19 and how the disease affects the human body, may significantly affect the regulatory timelines for our COVID-19 drug candidates. Results from our continued development and planned clinical trials may raise new questions and require us to redesign proposed nonclinical studies and clinical trials, including revising proposed endpoints or adding new clinical trial sites or cohorts of subjects, with minimal lead time.

The FDA has the authority to grant an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to allow unapproved medical products to be used in an emergency to diagnose, treat, or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions when, based on the totality of scientific evidence, there is evidence of effectiveness of the medical product, and there are no adequate, approved, and available alternatives. For instance, the FDA granted an EUA for each of the COVID-19 vaccines developed by Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna and Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson. Depending on the outcomes of our planned nonclinical and initial clinical testing for our proposed COVID-19 therapies, we may seek an EUA for one or more of our drug candidates for use in the ongoing public health emergency, which would permit us to commercialize a drug candidate prior to FDA approval of an NDA. However, commercialization under an EUA is permitted only during the underlying public health emergency (as declared by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services), meaning that once the emergency declaration is terminated, we would be required to obtain NDA approval to continue marketing the product. Furthermore, the FDA may revoke an EUA based on a determination that the product no longer satisfies the criteria for issuance of an EUA—for example, if there is no longer evidence of effectiveness of the product or there are other adequate, approved alternatives. Accordingly, we cannot predict how long, if at all, an EUA for any of our drug candidates may remain in place. Any termination or revocation of an EUA (if any) for one of our drug candidates could adversely impact our business in a variety of ways, including if one of our COVID-19 drug candidates is not yet approved by the FDA and if we and our manufacturing partners have invested in the supply chain to provide one of our COVID-19 drug candidates under an EUA.

 

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The results of nonclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of future results.

The results of nonclinical studies may not be predictive of the results of clinical trials, and the results of any early-stage clinical trials we commence may not be predictive of the results of the later-stage clinical trials. Drug candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy despite having progressed through nonclinical studies and initial clinical trials. There is a high failure rate for drugs proceeding through clinical trials, and a number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in clinical development even after achieving promising results in earlier studies. There can be no assurance that any of our current or future clinical trials will ultimately be successful or support further clinical development of any of our drug candidates. Even if our clinical trials are completed, the results may not be sufficient to obtain regulatory approval of any products. Any such setbacks in our clinical development could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

Interim, “topline” and preliminary data from our clinical trials may differ materially from the final data.

From time to time, we may disclose interim data from our clinical trials, including the preliminary data included herein with respect to our CAM candidate, ALG-000184, and our STOPS candidate, ALG-000133. Interim data from clinical trials are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more data on existing patients become available. Adverse differences between interim data and final data could significantly harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. From time to time, we may also publicly disclose preliminary or “topline” data from our clinical trials, which are based on a preliminary analysis of then-available data, and the results and related findings and conclusions are subject to change following a more comprehensive review of the data related to the particular study or trial. We also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of data, and we may not have received or had the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate all data. As a result, the topline results that we report may differ from future results of the same clinical trials, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such topline results, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated. Topline data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, topline data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available.

Further, others, including regulatory agencies, may not accept or agree with our assumptions, estimates, calculations, conclusions or analyses or may interpret or weigh the importance of data differently, which could impact the value of the particular program, the approvability or commercialization of the particular drug candidate or product and the value of our company in general. In addition, the information we choose to publicly disclose regarding a particular study or clinical trial is typically a summary of extensive information, and you or others may not agree with what we determine is the material or otherwise appropriate information to include in our disclosure, and any information we determine not to disclose may ultimately be deemed significant with respect to future decisions, conclusions, views, activities or otherwise regarding a particular product, drug candidate or our business. If the topline data that we report differ from actual results, or if others, including regulatory authorities, disagree with the conclusions reached, our ability to obtain approval for, and commercialize, our drug candidates may be harmed, which could harm our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

If we encounter difficulties enrolling patients in our clinical trials, our clinical development activities could be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.

The timely completion of clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients who remain in the trial until its conclusion. We may experience

 

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difficulties in patient enrollment in our clinical trials for a variety of reasons. The enrollment of patients depends on many factors, including:

 

 

the patient eligibility criteria defined in the protocol;

 

 

the size of the patient population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;

 

 

the proximity of patients to study sites;

 

 

the design of the trial;

 

 

our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;

 

 

clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the drug candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new products that may be approved for the indications we are investigating;

 

 

our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents for participation in our clinical trials and, where appropriate, biopsies for future patient enrichment efforts;

 

 

the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will not remain in the trial through the completion of evaluation; and

 

 

disruption by man-made or natural disasters, or public health pandemics or epidemics or other business interruptions, including the current COVID-19 pandemic and future outbreaks of the virus.

In addition, our clinical trials will compete with other clinical trials for drug candidates that are in the same therapeutic areas as our current and potential future drug candidates. This competition will reduce the number and types of patients available to us, because some patients who might have enrolled in our trials may instead opt to enroll in a trial conducted by one of our competitors. Since the number of qualified clinical investigators is limited, we may conduct some of our clinical trials at the same clinical trial sites that some of our competitors use, which would reduce the number of patients who are available for our clinical trials at such sites. Moreover, because our current and potential future drug candidates may represent a departure from more commonly used methods for treatment, potential patients and their doctors may be inclined to use conventional therapies rather than enroll patients in our clinical trials.

Delays in patient enrollment may result in increased costs or may affect the timing or outcome of clinical trials, which could prevent completion of these trials and adversely affect our ability to advance the development of our drug candidates.

Changes in methods of drug candidate manufacturing or formulation may result in additional costs or delay.

As drug candidates proceed from nonclinical studies to late-stage clinical trials towards potential approval and commercialization, it is common that various aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing methods and formulation, are altered to optimize results. However, any change could entails additional cost and risks potential delay if the reformulated or otherwise altered drug candidate performs different than expected or intended, which could require modification to the nonclinical or clinical program. Such changes may also require additional testing, including bridging or comparability testing to demonstrate the validity of clinical data obtained in clinical trials following manufacturing changes, FDA notification or FDA approval.

Moreover, we have not yet manufactured or processed on a commercial scale any of our drug candidates. We may make changes as we work to optimize our manufacturing processes, but we cannot be sure that even minor changes in our processes will result in therapies that are safe and effective or that will be approved for commercial sale.

 

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Our current or future drug candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs that could delay or halt their clinical development, prevent their marketing approval, limit their commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences.

Undesirable or clinically unmanageable side effects from one or more of our drug candidates or potential future products could occur and cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or terminate clinical trials, could result in a more restrictive label or could cause the delay or denial of marketing approval by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Further, results of our planned clinical trials could reveal unacceptably severe and prevalent side effects or unexpected characteristics.

If unacceptable toxicities or other undesirable side effects arise in the development of any of our current or future drug candidates, we could suspend or terminate our trials, or the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease clinical trials or deny approval of the drug candidate for any or all targeted indications. Treatment-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled subjects to complete the trial, or result in potential product liability claims. In addition, these side effects may not be appropriately recognized or managed by the treating medical staff. Inadequately recognizing or managing the potential side effects of our drug candidates could result in patient injury or death. Any of these occurrences may prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the affected drug candidate and may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

Although our current and future drug candidates will undergo safety testing to the extent possible and, where applicable, under such conditions discussed with regulatory authorities, not all adverse effects of drugs can be predicted or anticipated. Unforeseen side effects could arise either during clinical development or, if such side effects are more rare, after our products have been approved by regulatory authorities and the approved product has been marketed, resulting in the exposure of additional patients. To date, we have not demonstrated that any of our drug candidates are safe in humans, and we cannot predict if ongoing or future clinical trials will do so.

Furthermore, we plan to evaluate our drug candidates in combination with approved and/or experimental therapies. These combinations may have additional or more severe side effects than caused by our drug candidates as monotherapies or may cause side effects at lower doses. The uncertainty resulting from the use of our drug candidates in combination with other therapies may make it difficult to accurately predict side effects in potential future clinical trials.

If any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by such products, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could occur, including:

 

 

regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval of the product;

 

 

we may be required to recall a product or change the way such product is administered to patients;

 

 

additional restrictions may be imposed on the marketing of the particular product or the manufacturing processes for the product or any component thereof;

 

 

regulatory authorities may require the addition of labeling statements, such as a “black box” warning or a contraindication;

 

 

we may be required to implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) or create a Medication Guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients;

 

 

we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;

 

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the product may become less competitive; and

 

 

our reputation may suffer.

Any of the foregoing events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular drug candidate, if approved, and result in the loss of significant revenue to us, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, if one or more of our drug candidates prove to be unsafe, our entire technology platform and pipeline could be affected, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Even if we complete the necessary nonclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain and may prevent us or any of our future collaboration partners from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of our current drug candidates and any other drug candidate we develop.

Any current or future drug candidates we may develop and the activities associated with their development and commercialization, including their design, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, recordkeeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale, and distribution, are subject to comprehensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory authorities in the United States and by comparable authorities in other countries. Failure to obtain marketing approval for a drug candidate will prevent us from commercializing the drug candidate in a given jurisdiction. We have not received approval to market any drug candidates from regulatory authorities in any jurisdiction and it is possible that none of our current or future drug candidates will ever obtain regulatory approval. As an organization, we have no experience in filing and supporting the applications necessary to gain marketing approvals and expect to rely on third-party CROs or regulatory consultants to assist us in this process. Securing regulatory approval requires the submission of extensive nonclinical and clinical data and supporting information to the various regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the drug candidate’s safety and efficacy. Securing regulatory approval also requires the submission of information about the product manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the relevant regulatory authority. Any drug candidates we develop may not be effective, may be only moderately effective, or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use.

The process of obtaining marketing approvals, both in the United States and abroad, is expensive, may take many years if additional clinical trials are required, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon a variety of factors, including the type, complexity, and novelty of the drug candidates involved. Changes in marketing approval policies during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional statutes or regulations, or changes in regulatory review for each submitted product application, may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application. The FDA and comparable authorities in other countries have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional nonclinical, clinical or other studies. In addition, varying interpretations of the data obtained from nonclinical and clinical testing could delay, limit, or prevent marketing approval of a drug candidate. Any marketing approval we ultimately obtain may be limited or subject to restrictions or post-approval commitments that render the approved product not commercially viable.

If we experience delays in obtaining marketing approval or if we fail to obtain marketing approval of any current or future drug candidates we may develop, the commercial prospects for those drug candidates may be harmed, and our ability to generate revenues will be materially impaired.

 

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Even if a current or future drug candidate receives marketing approval, it may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

If any current or future drug candidate we develop receives marketing approval, whether as a single agent or in combination with other therapies, it may nonetheless fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors, and others in the medical community, or such participants may prefer existing treatment options such as nucleos(t)ide analogs including tenofovir and entecavir. If the drug candidates we develop do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance, we may not generate significant product revenues and we may not become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of any drug candidate, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

 

efficacy and potential advantages compared to alternative treatments;

 

 

the ability to offer our products, if approved, for sale at competitive prices;

 

 

convenience and ease of administration compared to alternative treatments;

 

 

the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;

 

 

the strength of marketing and distribution support;

 

 

the ability to obtain sufficient third-party coverage and adequate reimbursement, including with respect to the use of the approved product as a combination therapy;

 

 

adoption of a companion diagnostic and/or complementary diagnostic (if any); and

 

 

the prevalence and severity of any side effects.

Adverse events in our therapeutic areas of focus, including hepatological indications and viral diseases, could damage public perception of our current or future drug candidates and negatively affect our business.

The commercial success of our products will depend in part on public acceptance of our therapeutic areas of focus. Adverse events in clinical trials of our drug candidates, or post-marketing activities, or in clinical trials of others developing similar products or targeting similar indications and the resulting publicity, as well as any other adverse events in our therapeutic areas of focus, including hepatological indications and viral diseases, could result in decreased demand for any product that we may develop. If public perception is influenced by claims that the use of therapies in our therapeutic areas of focus are unsafe, whether related to our therapies or those of our competitors, our products may not be accepted by the general public or the medical community.

Future adverse events in our therapeutic areas of focus or the biopharmaceutical industry could also result in greater governmental regulation, stricter labeling requirements and potential regulatory delays in the testing or approvals of our products. Any increased scrutiny could delay or increase the costs of obtaining marketing approval for the drug candidates we have developed, are developing and may in the future develop.

Negative developments and negative public opinion of technologies on which we rely may damage public perception of our drug candidates or adversely affect our ability to conduct our business or obtain regulatory approvals for our drug candidates.

The clinical and commercial success of our drug candidates will depend in part on public acceptance of the use of technologies for the prevention or treatment of human diseases. Adverse public attitudes may adversely impact our ability to enroll clinical trials. Moreover, our success will depend upon physicians specializing in our

 

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targeted diseases prescribing, and their patients being willing to receive, our drug candidates as treatments in lieu of, or in addition to, existing, more familiar, treatments for which greater clinical data may be available. Any increase in negative perceptions of the technologies that we rely on may result in fewer physicians prescribing our products (if approved) or may reduce the willingness of patients to utilize our products or participate in clinical trials for our drug candidates.

Increased negative public opinion or more restrictive government regulations in response thereto, would have a negative effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects and may delay or impair the development and commercialization of our drug candidates or demand for such drug candidates. Adverse events in our nonclinical studies or clinical trials or those of our competitors or of academic researchers utilizing similar technologies, even if not ultimately attributable to drug candidates we may discover and develop, and the resulting publicity could result in increased governmental regulation, unfavorable public perception, potential regulatory delays in the testing or approval of potential drug candidates we may identify and develop, stricter labeling requirements for those drug candidates that are approved, a decrease in demand for any such drug candidates and a suspension or withdrawal of approval by regulatory authorities of our drug candidates.

Even if we receive marketing approval of a drug candidate, we will be subject to ongoing regulatory obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense, and we may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or experience unanticipated problems with our products, if approved.

Any marketing approvals that we receive for any current or future drug candidate may be subject to limitations on the approved indicated uses for which the product may be marketed, or contain requirements for potentially costly post-market testing and surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the drug candidate. The FDA may also require a REMS as a condition of approval of any drug candidate, which could include requirements for a Medication Guide, physician communication plans or additional elements to ensure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk-minimization tools. In addition, if the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority approves a drug candidate, the manufacturing processes, labeling, packaging, distribution, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion, import and export and record keeping for the product will be subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, establishment registration, as well as continued compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP), and Good Clinical Practice (GCP), for any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with any approved candidate, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with our third-party manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in, among other things:

 

 

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, withdrawal of the product from the market, or product recalls;

 

 

fines, untitled and warning letters, or holds on clinical trials;

 

 

refusal by the FDA or other regulatory authorities to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications we filed or suspension or revocation of license approvals;

 

 

product seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of the product; and

 

 

injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

The FDA’s and other regulatory authorities’ policies may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay marketing approval of a product. We cannot predict the likelihood,

 

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nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained, and we may not achieve profitability.

Even if we obtain and maintain approval for our drug candidates from the FDA, we may never obtain approval outside the United States, which would limit our market opportunities.

Approval of a drug candidate in the United States by the FDA does not ensure approval of such drug candidate by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries. Sales of our drug candidates outside the United States will be subject to foreign regulatory requirements governing clinical trials and marketing approval. Even if the FDA grants marketing approval for a drug candidate, comparable foreign regulatory authorities also must approve the manufacturing and marketing of the drug candidate in those countries. Approval procedures vary among jurisdictions and can involve requirements and administrative review periods different from, and more onerous than, those in the United States, including additional nonclinical studies or clinical trials. In many countries outside the United States, a drug candidate must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that country. In some cases, the price that we intend to charge for any drug candidates, if approved, is also subject to approval. Obtaining approval for our drug candidates in the European Union (the EU) from the European Commission following the opinion of the EMA, if we choose to submit a marketing authorization application there, would be a lengthy and expensive process. Even if a drug candidate is approved, the EMA may limit the indications for which the product may be marketed, require extensive warnings on the product labeling or require expensive and time-consuming additional clinical trials or reporting as conditions of approval. Approval of certain drug candidates outside of the United States, particularly those that target diseases that are more prevalent outside of the United States, will be particularly important to the commercial success of such drug candidates. Obtaining foreign regulatory approvals and compliance with foreign regulatory requirements could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and could delay or prevent the introduction of our drug candidates in certain countries.

Further, clinical trials conducted in one country may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other countries. For example, we are conducting our initial clinical trials for ALG-010133 and ALG-000184 in New Zealand, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom and Moldova, and plan to conduct additional clinical trials in several other countries and territories within the Asia Pacific and/or Europe and our conduct of the trials must satisfy specific requirements in order for the FDA to accept the data in support of an IND or NDA in the United States. Further, any regulatory approval for our drug candidates may be withdrawn. If we fail to comply with the applicable regulatory requirements, our target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of our drug candidates will be harmed and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be harmed.

Risks associated with our international operations, including seeking and obtaining approval to commercialize our drug candidates in foreign jurisdictions, could harm our business.

We engage in international operations with offices in the United States, Belgium and China and intend to seek approval to market our drug candidates outside of the United States. We may also do so for future drug candidates. We expect that we are or will be subject to additional risks related to these international business markets and relationships, including:

 

 

different regulatory requirements for approval of drug candidates in foreign countries, including challenging processes for marketing biopharmaceutical products;

 

 

reduced protection for and enforcement of intellectual property rights;

 

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heightened or different data privacy and information security laws, regulations and policies;

 

 

unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers and regulatory requirements;

 

 

economic weakness, including inflation or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets;

 

 

compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;

 

 

foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenue, and other obligations incident to doing business in another country;

 

 

foreign reimbursement, pricing and insurance regimes;

 

 

workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States;

 

 

production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities;

 

 

business interruptions resulting from geopolitical actions, including war and terrorism, or natural disasters including earthquakes, typhoons, floods and fires; and

 

 

disruptions resulting from the impact of public health pandemics or epidemics (including, for example, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic).

In addition, there are complex regulatory, tax, labor and other legal requirements imposed by many of the individual countries in which we may operate, with which we will need to comply.

Disruptions at the FDA and other government agencies caused by funding shortages or global health concerns could hinder their ability to hire, retain or deploy key leadership and other personnel, or could otherwise prevent new or modified products from being developed, approved or commercialized in a timely manner or at all, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, statutory, regulatory, and policy changes, the FDA’s ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and other events that may otherwise affect the FDA’s ability to perform routine functions. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new products to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, including for 35 days beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, have had to furlough critical FDA employees and stop critical activities.

Relatedly, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, on March 10, 2020 the FDA announced its intention to postpone most inspections of foreign manufacturing facilities, and on March 18, 2020, the FDA temporarily postponed routine surveillance inspections of domestic manufacturing facilities. Subsequently, on July 10, 2020 the FDA announced its intention to resume certain on-site inspections of domestic manufacturing facilities subject to a risk-based prioritization system. The FDA intends to use this risk-based assessment system to identify the categories of regulatory activity that can occur within a given geographic area, ranging from mission-critical inspections to resumption of all regulatory activities. The resumption of prioritized domestic inspections is dependent on the current COVID-19 data in a given state or county and the rules and guidelines established by state and local government. Regulatory authorities outside the United States may adopt similar restrictions or other policy measures in response to events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, or if global health concerns continue to prevent the FDA or other regulatory authorities from conducting their regular inspections, reviews, or other regulatory activities, it could

 

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significantly impair the ability of the FDA or other regulatory authorities to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

If the market opportunities for our drug candidates are smaller than we believe or any approval we obtain is based on a narrower definition of the patient population, our business may suffer.

We currently focus our product development on novel therapeutics to address unmet needs in hepatological indications and viral diseases. Our eligible patient population, pricing estimates and available coverage and reimbursement may differ significantly from the actual market addressable by our drug candidates. Our estimates of both the number of people who have these diseases, as well as the subset of people with these diseases who have the potential to benefit from treatment with our drug candidates, are based on our beliefs and analyses based on a variety of sources, including scientific literature, patient foundations or market research, and may prove to be incorrect. Further, new studies may change the estimated incidence or prevalence of the diseases we are targeting. The number of patients may turn out to be lower than expected, and the potentially addressable patient population for each of our drug candidates may be limited or may not be receptive to treatment with our drug candidates, and new patients may become increasingly difficult to identify or access. Certain potential patients may have or develop a resistance to our potential therapies or otherwise be unable to be treated with our potential therapies for COVID-19, HBV or other viral diseases as a result of their genetic makeup. In addition, the route of administration for our potential therapies could be inconvenient and/or not commercially viable, which could also limit the potential market for our therapies. If the market opportunities for our drug candidates are smaller than we estimate, it could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

For example, we believe NASH to be one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases worldwide, however, our projections of the number of people who have NASH, as well as the subset of people with the disease who have the potential to benefit from treatment with our drug candidates, are based on our beliefs and estimates. The effort to identify patients with NASH is in early stages, and we cannot accurately predict the number of patients for whom treatment might be possible. NASH is often undiagnosed and may be left undiagnosed for a long time, partly because a definitive diagnosis of NASH is currently based on a histological assessment of a liver biopsy, which impairs the ability to easily identify patients. If improved diagnostic techniques for identifying NASH patients who will benefit from treatment are not developed, our market opportunity may be smaller than we currently anticipate. Further, if government authorities and third-party payors choose to limit coverage and reimbursement of our NASH drug candidate, such as limiting the number of patients’ treatment that would be covered and reimbursable, this could result in a smaller market opportunity for our NASH drug candidate than we anticipate.

In addition, the number of people who have HBV, as well as the subset of people with the disease who have the potential to benefit from treatment with our drug candidates, may be reduced due to factors including the genotype or variant of HBV, more widespread use of vaccines or alternative therapies, political roadblocks to approval and/or treatment in certain countries and the virus’s development of resistance to our potential treatments after long-term and persistent exposure to antiviral therapy.

We intend to develop our current drug candidates, and expect to develop other future drug candidates, in combination with other therapies, which exposes us to additional risks.

We intend to develop our current drug candidates, and expect to develop other future drug candidates, in combination with one or more therapies, including therapies that we develop and those developed externally. Even if a drug candidate we develop were to receive marketing approval or be commercialized for use in combination with other therapies, we would face the risk that the FDA or similar regulatory authority outside of the United States could revoke approval of the therapy used in combination with our drug candidate or that

 

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safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues could arise with these other therapies. Combination therapies are commonly used for the treatment of viral diseases and it is generally believed they will be required for NASH, and we would be subject to similar risks if we develop any of our drug candidates for use in combination with other drugs. This could result in our own products, if approved, being removed from the market or suffering commercially. In addition, we may evaluate our current drug candidates and other future drug candidates in combination with one or more other therapies that may have not yet been approved for marketing by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States. We will not be able to market and sell any drug candidate we develop in combination with any such unapproved therapies that do not ultimately obtain marketing approval.

If the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States do not approve these other drugs or revoke their approval of, or if safety, efficacy, manufacturing, or supply issues arise with, the drugs we choose to evaluate in combination with or any of our drug candidate, we may be unable to obtain approval of or market any of our combination treatments.

We face significant competition, and if our competitors develop and market products that are more effective, safer or less expensive than the drug candidates we develop, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.

The life sciences industry is highly competitive. We are currently developing therapies that will compete, if approved, with other products and therapies that currently exist or are being developed. Products we may develop in the future are also likely to face competition from other products and therapies, some of which we may not currently be aware of. We have competitors both in the United States and internationally, including major multinational pharmaceutical companies, established biotechnology companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies, universities and other research institutions. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, manufacturing, marketing, product development, technical and human resources than we do. Large pharmaceutical companies, in particular, have extensive experience in clinical testing, obtaining marketing approvals, recruiting patients and manufacturing pharmaceutical products. These companies also have significantly greater research and marketing capabilities than we do and may also have products that have been approved or are in late stages of development, and collaborative arrangements in our target markets with leading companies and research institutions. Established pharmaceutical companies may also invest heavily to accelerate discovery and development of novel compounds or to in-license novel compounds that could make the drug candidates that we develop obsolete. Further, mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. As a result of all of these factors, our competitors may succeed in obtaining patent protection and/or marketing approval or discovering, developing and commercializing products in our field before we do.

There are a number of companies developing or marketing treatments for CHB, including Roche Holding AG (Roche), Gilead, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Arbutus Biopharma Corporation, Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (together with Roche), Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (together with GSK), Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (together with Janssen Pharmaceuticals Company (Janssen)), Vir Biotechnology, Inc. (together with Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc.), Johnson & Johnson, Assembly Biosciences Inc., Enanta Pharmaceuticals, Altimmune, Inc., GSK, Janssen, Transgene SA, Dynavax Technologies, Inc., Merck and Replicor, Inc.

There are also companies developing or marketing treatments or vaccines for COVID-19, including Soliris by Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Atea Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (together with Roche), Jakafi by Incyte Corporation, Kevzara by Sanofi S.A./Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Amgen Inc. (together with Adaptive Biotechnologies Corporation), Abcellera Biologics, Inc. (together with Eli Lilly and Company), Vir Biotechnology, Inc. (together with GSK, Biogen Inc. and WuXi Biologics Ltd.), Altimmune, Inc., AstraZeneca PLC (together with Oxford

 

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University), BioNTech SE (together with Pfizer Inc.), GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) (together with Sanofi S.A.), Heat Biologics, Inc., Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Moderna, Inc., Novavax, Inc., Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., and Vaxart, Inc. For example, BioNTech SE (together with Pfizer Inc.), Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson and Moderna Inc. have developed COVID-19 vaccines that have received authorization for emergency use and are being widely administered. In addition, Pfizer, Inc. recently announced its COVID-19 experimental drug (an orally administered protease inhibitor) which entered the clinic in March 2021, may be available by the end of 2021. Similarly, Merck (together with Ridgeback Bio), is developing the drug Molnupiravir, an antiviral drug currently in a Phase 3 clinical trial which has the potential to become the first oral COVID-19 treatment. The availability of such COVID-19 vaccines and Pfizer’s oral COVID-19 drug may reduce or eliminate the need for our potential COVID therapies to treat the disease and therefore negatively impact the commercial opportunity therefor.

Furthermore, there are companies developing or marketing treatments for NASH, including AbbVie, Inc., AstraZeneca PLC/MedImmune LLC, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Eli Lilly and Company, FronThera US Pharmaceuticals LLC, Janssen, Merck, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation (together with Pfizer, Inc.), Novo Nordisk A/S, Pfizer Inc., Roche, Sanofi S.A., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (together with HemoShear Therapeutics, LLC), 89bio, Inc., Akero Therapeutics, Inc., Blade Therapeutics, Inc., Cirius Therapeutics, Inc., Enanta Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Galectin Therapeutics Inc., Galmed Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Genfit SA, Gilead, Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Inventiva Pharma SA, Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MediciNova, Inc., NGM Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Pliant Therapeutics, Inc. (together with Novartis), Terns Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Viking Therapeutics, Inc.

Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe effects, are more convenient, have a broader label, are marketed more effectively, including gaining exclusivity for their competing products on formularies thereby excluding our products from such formularies, are reimbursed or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain FDA, EMA or other marketing approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours (if at all), which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market (if ever). Even if the drug candidates we develop achieve marketing approval, they may be priced at a significant premium over competitive products, resulting in reduced competitiveness of our products.

Smaller and other early stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors. In addition, academic research departments and public and private research institutions may be conducting research on compounds that could prove to be competitive.

These third parties compete with us not only in drug candidate development, but also in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring and/or licensing technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

In addition, the biopharmaceutical industry is characterized by rapid technological change. If we fail to keep pace with technological change, we may be unable to compete effectively. Technological advances or products developed by our competitors may render our drug candidates obsolete, less competitive or not economical, thereby adversely affecting our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If any of our current or future drug candidates obtain regulatory approval, additional competitors could enter the market with generic versions of such products, which may result in a material decline in sales of our competing products.

Under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, or the Hatch-Waxman Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FDCA), a pharmaceutical manufacturer may file an abbreviated new drug application (an ANDA) seeking approval of a generic version of an approved innovator

 

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product. Under the Hatch-Waxman Amendments, a manufacturer may also submit an NDA under section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA that references the FDA’s prior approval of the innovator product. A 505(b)(2) NDA product may be for a new or improved version of the original innovator product. The Hatch-Waxman Amendments also provide for certain periods of regulatory exclusivity, which preclude FDA approval (or in some circumstances, FDA filing and review) of an ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA. In addition to the benefits of regulatory exclusivity, an innovator NDA holder may have patents claiming the active ingredient, product formulation or an approved use of the drug, which would be listed with the product in the FDA publication “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations,” known as the Orange Book. If there are patents listed in the Orange Book for a product, a generic or 505(b)(2) applicant that seeks to market its product before expiration of the patents must include in their applications what is known as a “Paragraph IV” certification, challenging the validity or enforceability, or claiming non-infringement, of the listed patent or patents. Notice of the certification must be given to the patent owner and NDA holder and if, within 45 days of receiving notice, either the patent owner or NDA holder sues for patent infringement, approval of the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA is stayed for up to 30 months.

Accordingly, if any of our future drug candidates are approved, competitors could file ANDAs for generic versions of these products or 505(b)(2) NDAs that reference our products. If there are patents listed for such drug products in the Orange Book, those ANDAs and 505(b)(2) NDAs would be required to include a certification as to each listed patent indicating whether the ANDA applicant does or does not intend to challenge the patent. We cannot predict which, if any, patents in our current portfolio or patents we may obtain in the future will be eligible for listing in the Orange Book, how any generic competitor would address such patents, whether we would sue on any such patents or the outcome of any such suit.

We may not be successful in securing or maintaining proprietary patent protection for products and technologies we develop or license, despite expending a significant amount of resources that could have been focused on other areas of our business. Moreover, if any of our owned or in-licensed patents that are listed in the Orange Book are successfully challenged by way of a Paragraph IV certification and subsequent litigation, the affected product could immediately face generic competition and its sales would likely decline rapidly and materially.

Even if we are able to commercialize any drug candidates, such products may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations or third-party coverage and reimbursement policies, which would harm our business.

The regulations that govern marketing approvals, pricing and reimbursement for new products vary widely from country to country. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a product before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing approval is granted. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we might obtain marketing approval for a drug candidate in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay our commercial launch of the drug candidate, possibly for lengthy time periods, and negatively impact the revenues we are able to generate from the sale of the drug candidate in that country, potentially to the point of unviability. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more drug candidates, even if our drug candidates obtain marketing approval.

Our ability to successfully commercialize any drug candidates, whether as a single agent or in combination, will also depend in part on the extent to which coverage and reimbursement for these drug candidates and related treatments is available from government authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. It is difficult to

 

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predict at this time what government authorities and third-party payors may decide with respect to coverage and reimbursement for our programs (if approved).

A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Government authorities, particularly in the European Union, and third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular products and requiring substitutions of generic products and/or biosimilars. Increasingly, third-party payors are scrutinizing the prices charged for drugs. We cannot be sure that coverage will be available for any drug candidate that we commercialize and, if coverage is available, the level of reimbursement. These government authorities and third-party payors are also examining the cost-effectiveness of drugs, in addition to their safety and efficacy. For example, in some countries, we, or any future collaborators, may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our drug to other therapies to obtain reimbursement or pricing approval. Reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. If reimbursement is not available or is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval.

Further, there may be significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs, as the process is time-consuming and costly, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the drug is approved by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Additionally, no uniform policy requirement for coverage and reimbursement for drug products exists among third-party payors in the United States, which may result in coverage and reimbursement for drug products that differ significantly from payor to payor. Moreover, eligibility for reimbursement does not imply that any drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution. Interim reimbursement levels for new drugs, if applicable, may not be sufficient to cover our costs and may not be permanent. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower-cost drugs and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and profitable payment rates from both government-funded and private payors for any approved drugs that we develop could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize drugs and our overall financial condition.

We may not be successful in our efforts to identify or discover other drug candidates and may fail to capitalize on programs or drug candidates that may present a greater commercial opportunity or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

The success of our business depends upon our ability to identify, develop and commercialize drug candidates. If we do not successfully develop and eventually commercialize products, we will face difficulty in obtaining product revenue in future periods, resulting in significant harm to our financial position and adversely affecting our share price. Research programs to identify new drug candidates require substantial technical, financial and human resources, and we may fail to identify potential drug candidates for numerous reasons.

Additionally, because we have limited resources, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with certain programs or drug candidates or for indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. For example, we are currently focused on the development of our current drug candidates for hepatological indications. In addition, we are pursuing other drug candidates for viral diseases. However, the advancement of these drug candidates may ultimately prove to be unsuccessful or less successful than another program in our pipeline that we might have chosen to pursue on a less aggressive basis. However, due to the significant resources required for the development of our drug candidates, we must focus on specific diseases and disease

 

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pathways and decide which drug candidates to pursue and the amount of resources to allocate to each. Our near-term objective is to demonstrate favorable risk/benefit profiles through Phase 1 clinical trials of our drug candidates, ALG-010133 and ALG-000184. Our estimates regarding the potential market for our drug candidates could be inaccurate and our decisions concerning the allocation of research, development, collaboration, management and financial resources toward particular drug candidates or therapeutic areas may not lead to the development of any viable commercial product and may divert resources away from better opportunities. Similarly, any potential decision to delay or terminate development of a drug candidate or program may subsequently also prove to be suboptimal and could cause us to miss valuable opportunities. Further, if we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential for a particular drug candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that drug candidate through collaboration, licensing or other arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such drug candidate. Alternatively, we may allocate internal resources to a drug candidate in a therapeutic area in which it would have been more advantageous to enter into a partnering arrangement.

If any of these events occur, we may be forced to abandon or delay our development efforts with respect to a particular drug candidate or we may fail to develop a potentially successful drug candidate or capitalize on profitable market opportunities, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may seek and fail to obtain fast track or breakthrough therapy designations from the FDA for our current or future drug candidates or priority review designation for any NDA we may submit to the FDA. Even if we are successful, these programs may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review process, and they do not guarantee we will receive approval for any drug candidate. We may also seek to obtain accelerated approval for one or more of our drug candidates but the FDA may disagree that we have met the requirements for such approval.

If a product is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening condition and nonclinical or clinical data demonstrate the potential to address an unmet medical need for this condition, the product sponsor may apply for fast track designation. The FDA has broad discretion whether or not to grant this designation, so even if we believe a particular drug candidate is eligible for this designation, we cannot assure you that the FDA would decide to grant it. Even if we do receive fast track designation, we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional FDA procedures. The FDA may rescind the fast track designation if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development program.

We may also seek breakthrough therapy designation for any drug candidate that we develop. A breakthrough therapy is defined as a drug that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over currently approved therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. Like fast track designation, breakthrough therapy designation is within the discretion of the FDA. Accordingly, even if we believe a drug candidate we develop meets the criteria for designation as a breakthrough therapy, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to make such designation. In any event, the receipt of breakthrough therapy designation for a drug candidate may not result in a faster development process, review or approval compared to drugs considered for approval under conventional FDA procedures and does not assure ultimate approval by the FDA. In addition, even if a drug candidate we develop qualifies as a breakthrough therapy, the FDA may later decide that the drug no longer meets the conditions for qualification and rescind the designation.

Drugs designated as fast track products or breakthrough therapies by the FDA are also eligible for priority review of any NDA submitted for such drug candidates, which could result in FDA action on the NDA in a shorter

 

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timeframe than under standard review. In order to grant priority review designation, the FDA must find that the product, if approved, would provide a significant improvement in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis or prevention of a serious disease or condition. However, priority review does not guarantee approval of the NDA and may not result in a shorter overall review timeline if the FDA has significant questions or additional requests as part of the NDA review.

In addition, the FDA may grant accelerated approval to a product if the FDA determines that it has an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit, or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity, or prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. For example, this is currently the case with drugs for the treatment of NASH. As a condition of accelerated approval, the FDA will generally require the sponsor to perform adequate and well-controlled post-marketing clinical studies to verify and describe the anticipated effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit. In addition, the FDA requires pre-approval of promotional materials for accelerated approval products, once approved. We cannot guarantee that the FDA will conclude that any of our drug candidates has met the criteria to receive accelerated approval, which would require us to conduct additional clinical testing prior to seeking FDA approval. Even if any of our drug candidates received approval through this pathway, the product may fail required post-approval confirmatory clinical trials, and we may be required to remove the product from the market or amend the product label in a way that adversely impacts its marketing.

We may seek Orphan Drug Designation for drug candidates we develop, and we may be unsuccessful or may be unable to maintain the benefits associated with Orphan Drug Designation, including the potential for market exclusivity.

As part of our business strategy, we may seek Orphan Drug Designation for any drug candidates we develop, and we may be unsuccessful in obtaining such designation. Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and the EU, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a drug as an orphan drug if it is a drug intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals annually in the United States, or a patient population greater than 200,000 in the United States where there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the drug will be recovered from sales in the United States. In the United States, Orphan Drug Designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages and user-fee waivers.

Similarly, in the EU, the European Commission grants Orphan Drug Designation after receiving the opinion of the EMA Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products on an Orphan Drug Designation application. Orphan Drug Designation is intended to promote the development of drugs that are intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of life-threatening or chronically debilitating conditions affecting not more than 5 in 10,000 persons in Europe and for which no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention, or treatment has been authorized (or the product would be a significant benefit to those affected). Additionally, designation is granted for drugs intended for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of a life-threatening, seriously debilitating or serious and chronic condition and when, without incentives, it is unlikely that sales of the drug in Europe would be sufficient to justify the necessary investment in developing the drug. In Europe, Orphan Drug Designation entitles a party to a number of incentives, such as protocol assistance and scientific advice specifically for designated orphan medicines, and potential fee reductions depending on the status of the sponsor.

Generally, if a drug with an Orphan Drug Designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the drug is entitled to a period of marketing exclusivity, which precludes the EMA or the FDA from approving another marketing application for the same drug and indication

 

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for that time period, except in limited circumstances. The applicable period is seven years in the United States and ten years in the EU. The EU exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if a drug no longer meets the criteria for Orphan Drug Designation or if the drug is sufficiently profitable such that market exclusivity is no longer justified.

Even if we obtain orphan drug exclusivity for a drug candidate, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the drug candidate from competition because different therapies can be approved for the same condition. Even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve the same drug for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care. In addition, a designated orphan drug may not receive orphan drug exclusivity if it is approved for a use that is broader than the indication for which it received orphan designation. Moreover, orphan drug exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. Orphan Drug Designation neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug candidate nor gives the drug candidate any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process. While we may seek Orphan Drug Designation for applicable indications for our current and any future drug candidates, we may never receive such designations. Even if we do receive such designations, there is no guarantee that we will enjoy the benefits of those designations.

We may be required to make significant payments under our license agreements with Emory and Luxna.

We entered into a License Agreement with Emory in June 2018 (the Emory License Agreement), and a License Agreement with Luxna in December 2018 and an amendment in April 2020 (as amended, the Luxna Agreement). Under the Emory License Agreement and Luxna Agreement, we are subject to significant obligations, including milestone payments, royalty payments, and certain other agreed-to costs. For more information regarding our license agreements, please see the section titled “Business—License agreements and collaborations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated by reference herein. If these payments become due under the terms of either the Emory License Agreement or Luxna Agreement, we may not have sufficient funds available to meet our obligations and our development efforts may be materially harmed. Furthermore, if we are forced to raise additional funds, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts, or grant rights to develop and market drug candidates that we would otherwise develop and market ourselves.

If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of any approved products.

We face an inherent risk of product liability as a result of the clinical testing of drug candidates and will face an even greater risk if we commercialize any products. For example, we may be sued if any drug candidate we develop causes or is perceived to cause illness or is found to be otherwise unsuitable during clinical testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability or a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit commercialization of any approved products. Even successful defense would require significant financial and management resources. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

 

 

decreased demand for any approved product;

 

injury to our reputation;

 

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withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

 

initiation of investigations by regulators;

 

costs to defend the related litigation;

 

a diversion of management’s time and our resources;

 

substantial monetary payments to trial participants or patients;

 

product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;

 

loss of revenue;

 

exhaustion of any available insurance and our capital resources;

 

adverse effects to our results of operations and business;

 

the inability to commercialize any drug candidate; and

 

a decline in our share price.

Our inability to obtain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost or at all to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of products we develop, alone or with collaboration partners.

Insurance coverage is increasingly expensive. We may not be able to maintain insurance, including product liability insurance at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise, if at all. Our product liability insurance policy contains various exclusions, and we may be subject to a product liability claim for which we have no coverage. We may have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts. Even if our agreements with current or future collaborators entitle us to indemnification against losses, such indemnification may not be available or adequate should any claim arise.

Healthcare legislative reform measures may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

In the United States, there have been and continue to be a number of legislative initiatives to contain healthcare costs. For example, in March 2010, the Affordable Care Act (the ACA) was passed, which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and significantly impacted the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. The ACA, among other things, increased the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and extended the rebate program to individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations, established annual fees and taxes on manufacturers of certain branded prescription drugs, and created a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer 70% point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs being covered under Medicare Part D.

Since its enactment, there have been judicial, executive and Congressional challenges to the ACA. By way of example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the TCJA) was signed into law, which included a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the ACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year, commonly referred to as the individual mandate. On December 14, 2018, a Texas U.S. District Court Judge ruled that the ACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was repealed by Congress as part of the TCJA. Additionally, on December 18, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit ruled that that the individual mandate was unconstitutional and remanded the case back to the District Court to determine whether the remaining provisions of the ACA are invalid as well. The U.S. Supreme Court is currently reviewing this case, although it is unclear how the Supreme Court will rule. It is also unclear how other efforts, if any, to challenge, repeal or replace the ACA will impact the ACA or our business.

 

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Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. On August 2, 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, included aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year. These reductions went into effect on April 1, 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, will remain in effect through 2030, with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2021, unless additional Congressional action is taken. In addition, on January 2, 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers.

Moreover, payment methodologies may be subject to changes in healthcare legislation and regulatory initiatives. We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in additional pricing pressure or reduced demand for any drug candidate we develop or complementary or companion diagnostics. For example, it is possible that additional governmental action will be taken to address the COVID-19 pandemic, which could impact our business in an as-yet unknown manner.

Additionally, there has been increasing legislative and enforcement interest in the United States with respect to specialty drug pricing practices. Specifically, there have been several recent U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation and regulation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, reduce the cost of prescription drugs under Medicare, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drugs. It is unclear whether the Biden administration will work to reverse these measures or pursue similar policy initiatives to control drug costs. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare and other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payers.

Actual or perceived failure to comply with current or future federal, state and foreign laws and regulations and industry standards relating to privacy and data protection laws could lead to government enforcement actions, which could include civil or criminal penalties, private litigation, and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our operating results and business.

We and our partners may be subject to federal, state and foreign data privacy and security laws and regulations. Failure by us or our third-party vendors, collaborators, contractors and consultants to comply with any of these laws and regulations could result in notification obligations or enforcement actions against us, which could result in, among other things, fines, claims for damages by affected individuals, damage to our reputation and loss of goodwill, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. These laws, rules and regulations evolve frequently and their scope may continually change, through new legislation, amendments to existing legislation and changes in enforcement, and may be inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another. The interpretation and application of consumer, health-related and data protection laws in the United States, the EU and elsewhere, are often uncertain, contradictory and in flux. As a result, implementation standards and enforcement practices are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. As our operations and business grow, we may become subject to or affected by new or additional data protection laws and regulations and face increased scrutiny or attention from regulatory authorities.

In the United States, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including federal health information privacy laws, state data breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws and federal and state consumer protection laws (e.g., Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act), which govern the collection, use, disclosure and protection of health-related and other personal information could apply to our operations or the operations of our collaborators. In addition, we may obtain health information from third parties (including research institutions from which we obtain clinical trial data) that are subject to privacy and security

 

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requirements under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as amended by Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH). Depending on the facts and circumstances, we could be subject to criminal penalties if we knowingly obtain, use, or disclose individually identifiable health information provided to us by a HIPAA-covered entity in a manner that is not authorized or permitted by HIPAA.

Many states have also adopted comparable privacy and security laws and regulations, some of which may be more stringent than HIPAA. Such laws and regulations will be subject to interpretation by various courts and other governmental authorities, thus creating potentially complex compliance issues for us and our future customers and strategic partners. In addition, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA) went into effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA, among other things, creates individual privacy rights for California consumers, such as the right to access and delete their personal information, opt-out of certain sales of personal information and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase the frequency of data breach litigation. The CCPA may increase our compliance costs and potential liability, and many similar laws have been proposed at the federal level and in other states. Further, the California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA) recently passed in California, which will impose additional data protection obligations on covered businesses, including additional consumer rights processes, limitations on data uses, new audit requirements for higher risk data, and opt outs for certain uses of sensitive data. It will also create a new California data protection agency authorized to issue substantive regulations and could result in increased privacy and information security enforcement. The majority of the provisions will go into effect on January 1, 2023, and additional compliance investment and potential business process changes may be required. In the event that we are subject to or affected by HIPAA, the CCPA or other domestic privacy and data protection laws, any liability from failure to comply with the requirements of these laws could adversely affect our financial condition.

We currently operate in countries outside of the United States, including Belgium, Australia and China, where laws may in some cases be more stringent than the requirements in the United States. For example, in Europe, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) went into effect in May 2018 and imposes strict requirements for the collection, storage, use, disclosure, transfer and other processing of the personal data of individuals within the European Economic Area (EEA). The GDPR applies extra-territorially under certain circumstances and imposes stringent requirements on controllers and processors of personal data, including, for example, requirements to obtain consent or other legal bases from individuals to process their personal data, provide robust disclosures to individuals, accommodate a set of individual data rights, provide data security breach notifications, limit retention of personal information and apply enhanced protections to health data and other special categories of personal data. The GDPR also applies to pseudonymized data, which is defined as “the processing of personal data in such a way that the data can no longer be attributed to a specific data subject without the use of additional information,” and imposes additional obligations when we contract with third-party processors in connection with the processing of any personal data. The GDPR provides that EU and EEA member states may make their own further laws and regulations limiting the processing of personal data, including genetic, biometric or health data, which could limit our ability to use and share personal data, could cause our costs to increase and could harm our financial condition. Failure to comply with the requirements of the GDPR could result in fines of up to 20 million or 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of our preceding fiscal year, whichever is higher, and other administrative penalties. Further, from January 1, 2021, we have to comply with the GDPR and also the United Kingdom GDPR (UK GDPR), which, together, with the amended Data Protection Act 2018, retains the GDPR in UK national law, the latter regime having the ability to separately fine up to the greater of £17.5 million or 4% of global turnover. The relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU in relation to certain aspects of data protection law remains unclear, and it is unclear how United Kingdom data protection laws and regulations will develop in the medium to longer term, and how data

 

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transfers to and from the United Kingdom will be regulated in the long term. Currently there is a four to six-month grace period agreed in the EU and U.K. Trade and Cooperation Agreement, ending June 30, 2021 at the latest, whilst the parties discuss an adequacy decision. The European Commission published a draft adequacy decision on February 19, 2021. If adopted, the decision will enable data transfers from EU member states to the United Kingdom for a four-year period, subject to subsequent extensions.

The GDPR further prohibits, without an appropriate legal basis, the transfer of personal data to countries outside of the EEA, such as the United States, which are not considered by the European Commission to provide an adequate level of data protection. Recent legal developments in Europe have created complexity and uncertainty regarding transfers of personal data from the EEA to the United States. For example, on July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) invalidated the EU-US Privacy Shield Framework (the Privacy Shield) under which personal data could be transferred from the EEA to United States entities that had self-certified under the Privacy Shield scheme. While the CJEU upheld the adequacy, subject to certain conditions, of the standard contractual clauses (a standard form of contract approved by the European Commission as an adequate personal data transfer mechanism), future regulatory guidance could result in changes to the use of standard contractual clauses. Failure to comply with the GDPR and other countries’ privacy or data security-related laws, rules or regulations could result in material penalties imposed by regulators, affect our compliance with contracts entered into with our collaborators and other third-party payors, and have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Compliance with U.S. and foreign privacy and security laws, rules and regulations could require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, require us to engage in costly compliance exercises, restrict our ability to collect, use and disclose data, or in some cases, impact our or our partners’ ability to operate in certain jurisdictions. Each of these evolving laws can be subject to varying interpretations. Failure to comply with U.S. and foreign data protection laws and regulations could result in government investigations and enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), fines, private litigation, and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our operating results and business.

Our internal computer systems, or those used by our CROs, vendors, or other contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches.

Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems and those of our CROs and other contractors and consultants are vulnerable to damage from cyber-attacks, computer hacks, theft, viruses, malicious software, phishing, employee error, denial-of-service attacks, unauthorized access and other security breaches that could jeopardize the performance of our software and computer systems, and could expose us to financial and reputational harm. Attacks upon information technology systems are increasing in their frequency, levels of persistence, sophistication and intensity, and are being conducted by sophisticated and organized groups and individuals with a wide range of motives and expertise. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may also face increased cybersecurity risks due to our reliance on internet technology and the number of our employees who are working remotely, which may create additional opportunities for cybercriminals to exploit vulnerabilities. Furthermore, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to, or to sabotage, systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. We may also experience security breaches that may remain undetected for an extended period. While we have not, to our knowledge, experienced any such material system failure or security breach to date, if such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our development programs and our business operations. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our marketing approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Likewise, we rely on third parties for the manufacture of our drug candidates and to conduct clinical trials, and similar events relating to their computer systems could also have

 

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a material adverse effect on our business. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the development and commercialization of our future drug candidates could be delayed. We have also outsourced elements of our information technology infrastructure, and as a result a number of third party vendors may or could have access to our confidential information. If our third party vendors fail to protect their information technology systems and our confidential and proprietary information, we may be vulnerable to disruptions in service and unauthorized access to our confidential or proprietary information and we could incur liability and reputational damage, which could negatively affect our operating results and business.

Risks related to reliance on third parties

We depend on collaborations with third parties for the development of certain of our potential drug candidates, and we may depend on additional collaborations in the future for the development and commercialization of these or other potential candidates. If our collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to capitalize on the market potential of these drug candidates.

We are currently collaborating with third parties to develop certain of our potential drug candidates. For example, we are collaborating with the Rega Institute and Centre for Drug Design and Discovery at KU Leuven with respect to potential protease inhibitors for the treatment of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, with Emory with respect to certain aspects of our small molecule CHB program and with Merck with respect to the discovery, research and development of oligonucleotides against an undisclosed NASH target. In the future, we may form or seek strategic alliances, joint ventures, or collaborations, or enter into additional licensing arrangements with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our development and commercialization efforts with respect to drug candidates we develop.

Collaborations involving our current and future drug candidates may pose the following risks to us:

 

 

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;

 

 

collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial, abandon a drug candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a drug candidate for clinical testing;

 

 

collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our products (if any) or drug candidates;

 

 

a collaborator with marketing, manufacturing and distribution rights to one or more products may not commit sufficient resources to or may otherwise not perform satisfactorily in carrying out these activities;

 

 

collaborators may not properly prosecute, maintain, enforce or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in a way that gives rise to actual or threatened litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation, or other intellectual property proceedings;

 

 

collaborators may own or co-own intellectual property covering products that result from our collaboration with them, and in such cases, we may not have the exclusive right to develop, license or commercialize such intellectual property;

 

 

disputes may arise with respect to ownership of any intellectual property developed pursuant to our collaborations;

 

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disputes may arise between a collaborator or strategic partner and us that cause the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of the drug candidate, or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources; and

 

 

if a current or future collaborator of ours were to be involved in a business combination, the continued pursuit and emphasis on our product development or commercialization program under such collaboration could be delayed, diminished or terminated.

As a result, if we enter into additional collaboration agreements and strategic partnerships or license our intellectual property, products or businesses, we may not be able to realize the benefit of such transactions if we are unable to successfully integrate them with our existing operations, which could delay our timelines or otherwise adversely affect our business. We also cannot be certain that, following a strategic transaction or license, we will achieve the revenue or specific net income that justifies such transaction. Any delays in entering into new collaborations or strategic partnership agreements related to any drug candidate we develop could delay the development and commercialization of our drug candidates, which would harm our business prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may seek to establish additional collaborations, and, if we are not able to establish them on commercially reasonable terms, we may have to alter our development and commercialization plans.

The advancement of our drug candidates and development programs and the potential commercialization of our current and future drug candidates will require substantial additional cash to fund expenses. For some of our programs, we may decide to collaborate with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies with respect to development and potential commercialization. Any of these relationships may require us to incur non-recurring and other charges, increase our near- and long-term expenditures, issue securities that dilute our existing stockholders, divert our management’s attention and disrupt our business.

We face significant competition in seeking appropriate strategic partners and the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex. Whether we reach a definitive agreement for any other collaborations will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. Those factors may include the design or results of clinical trials, the progress of our clinical trials, the likelihood of approval by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States, the potential market for the subject drug candidate, the costs and complexities of manufacturing and delivering such drug candidate to patients, the potential of competing products, the existence of uncertainty with respect to our ownership of technology, which can exist if there is a challenge to such ownership without regard to the merits of the challenge and industry and market conditions generally. The collaborator may also consider alternative drug candidates or technologies for similar indications that may be available to collaborate on and whether such a collaboration could be more attractive than the one with us for our drug candidate. Further, we may not be successful in our efforts to establish a strategic partnership or other alternative arrangements for future drug candidates because they may be deemed to be at too early of a stage of development for collaborative efforts and third parties may not view them as having the requisite potential to demonstrate safety and efficacy.

We may also be restricted under future collaboration agreements from entering into additional agreements on certain terms with potential collaborators.

In addition, there have been a significant number of recent business combinations among large pharmaceutical companies that have resulted in a reduced number of potential future collaborators.

We may not be able to negotiate collaborations on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to do so, we may have to curtail the development of the drug candidate for which we are seeking to

 

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collaborate, reduce or delay its development program or one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to increase our expenditures to fund development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we do not have sufficient funds, we may not be able to further develop our drug candidates or bring them to market and generate product revenue.

If conflicts arise between us and our collaborators or strategic partners, these parties may act in a manner adverse to us and could limit our ability to implement our strategies.

If conflicts arise between our academic collaborators or strategic partners and us, the other party may act in a manner adverse to us and could limit our ability to implement our strategies. Current or future collaborators or strategic partners may develop, either alone or with others, products in related fields that are competitive with the products or potential products that are the subject of these collaborations.

Our current or future collaborators or strategic partners may preclude us from entering into collaborations with their competitors, fail to obtain timely regulatory approvals, terminate their agreements with us prematurely, or fail to devote sufficient resources to the development and commercialization of products. Furthermore, competing products, either developed by our current or future collaborators or strategic partners or to which our collaborators or strategic partners may have rights, may result in the withdrawal of partner support for our drug candidates. Any of these developments could harm our product development efforts.

We rely on third parties to conduct our ongoing and planned clinical trials and certain of our nonclinical studies for drug candidates we develop. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, comply with regulatory requirements or meet expected deadlines, we may not be able to obtain marketing approval for or commercialize the drug candidates we are developing and our business could be substantially harmed.

We do not have the ability to independently conduct certain nonclinical studies and clinical trials. We rely on medical institutions, clinical investigators, contract laboratories, and other third parties, such as CROs, to conduct or otherwise support certain nonclinical studies and clinical trials for our drug candidates, including ALG-010133 and ALG-000184, and we control only certain aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our nonclinical studies and clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal and regulatory requirements and scientific standards, and our reliance on CROs will not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. For any violations of laws and regulations during the conduct of our nonclinical studies or clinical trials, we could be subject to untitled and warning letters or enforcement action that may include civil penalties up to and including criminal prosecution.

We and our CROs are required to comply with regulations and requirements, including GLP and GCP, for conducting, monitoring, recording and reporting the results of nonclinical studies and clinical trials, respectively, to ensure that the data and results are scientifically credible and accurate, and that the trial patients are adequately informed of the potential risks of participating in clinical trials and their rights are protected. These regulations are enforced by the FDA, the Competent Authorities of the Member States of the EEA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for any drugs in clinical development. The FDA enforces GLP and GCP requirements through periodic inspections of laboratories conducting studies, clinical trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we or our CROs fail to comply with applicable GLP or GCP, the data generated in our nonclinical studies or clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional nonclinical studies before allowing us to proceed with clinical trials or additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot

 

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assure you that, upon inspection, the FDA will determine that any of our future nonclinical studies or clinical trials will comply with GLP or GCP, as applicable. In addition, our nonclinical studies and clinical trials must be conducted with drug candidates produced under cGMP regulations. Our failure or the failure of our CROs to comply with these regulations may require us to delay or repeat nonclinical studies or clinical trials, which would delay the marketing approval process and could also subject us to enforcement action. We also are required to register certain ongoing clinical trials and provide certain information, including information relating to the trial’s protocol, on a government-sponsored database, ClinicalTrials.gov, within specific timeframes. Failure to do so can result in fines, adverse publicity and civil and criminal sanctions.

Although we intend to design the nonclinical studies and clinical trials for our drug candidates, CROs conduct all of the clinical trials and certain nonclinical studies. As a result, many important aspects of our nonclinical and clinical development, including their conduct and timing, will be outside of our direct control. Our reliance on third parties to conduct future nonclinical studies and clinical trials will also result in less direct control over the management of data developed through nonclinical studies or clinical trials than would be the case if we were relying entirely upon our own staff. Communicating with outside parties can also be challenging, potentially leading to mistakes as well as difficulties in coordinating activities. Outside parties may:

 

 

have staffing difficulties;

 

fail to comply with contractual obligations;

 

experience regulatory compliance issues;

 

undergo changes in priorities;

 

become financially distressed; or

 

form relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors.

These factors may materially adversely affect the willingness or ability of third parties to conduct our nonclinical studies or clinical trials and may subject us to unexpected cost increases and/or delays that are beyond our control. If the CROs do not perform nonclinical studies or clinical trials in a satisfactory manner, breach their obligations to us or fail to comply with regulatory requirements, the development, marketing approval and commercialization of our drug candidates may be delayed, we may not be able to obtain marketing approval and commercialize our drug candidates, or our development program may be materially and irreversibly harmed. If we are unable to rely on nonclinical or clinical data collected by our CROs, we could be required to repeat, extend the duration of, or increase the size of any nonclinical studies or clinical trials we conduct and this could significantly delay commercialization and require significantly greater expenditures.

If any of our relationships with these third-party CROs terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative CROs on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced, if the quality or accuracy of the nonclinical or clinical data they obtain are compromised due to the failure to adhere to our protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, or if they are negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, any nonclinical studies or clinical trials such CROs are associated with may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain marketing approval for or successfully commercialize our drug candidates. As a result, we believe that our financial results and the commercial prospects for our drug candidates in the subject indication would be harmed, our costs would increase and our ability to generate revenue would be delayed.

 

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We rely on third parties to manufacture nonclinical and clinical drug supplies, and we intend to rely on third parties to produce commercial supplies of any approved product which increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of such drug candidates or products or such quantities at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

We do not own or operate manufacturing facilities for the production of nonclinical, clinical or commercial supplies of the drug candidates that we are developing or evaluating in our development programs. We have limited personnel with experience in drug manufacturing and lack the resources and the capabilities to manufacture any of our drug candidates on a nonclinical, clinical or commercial scale. We rely on third parties for supply of our nonclinical and clinical drug supplies (including key starting and intermediate materials), and our strategy is to outsource all manufacturing of our drug candidates and products to third parties.

In order to conduct clinical trials of drug candidates, we will need to have them manufactured in potentially large quantities. Our third-party manufacturers may be unable to successfully increase the manufacturing capacity for any of our clinical drug supplies (including key starting and intermediate materials) in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all. In addition, quality issues may arise during scale-up activities and at any other time. For example, ongoing data on the stability of our drug candidates may shorten the expiry of our drug candidates and lead to clinical trial material supply shortages, and potentially clinical trial delays. If these third-party manufacturers are unable to successfully scale up the manufacture of our drug candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, the development, testing and clinical trials of that drug candidate may be delayed or infeasible, and regulatory approval or commercial launch of that drug candidate may be delayed or not obtained, which could significantly harm our business.

Our use of new third-party manufacturers increases the risk of delays in production or insufficient supplies of our drug candidates (and the key starting and intermediate materials for such drug candidates) as we transfer our manufacturing technology to these manufacturers and as they gain experience manufacturing our drug candidates (and the key starting and intermediate materials for such drug candidates).

Even after a third-party manufacturer has gained significant experience in manufacturing our drug candidates (or the key starting and intermediate materials for such drug candidates) or even if we believe we have succeeded in optimizing the manufacturing process, there can be no assurance that such manufacturer will produce sufficient quantities of our drug candidates (or the key starting and intermediate materials for such drug candidates) in a timely manner or continuously over time, or at all.

We may be delayed if we need to change the manufacturing process used by a third party. Further, if we change an approved manufacturing process, then we may be delayed if the FDA or a comparable foreign authority needs to review the new manufacturing process before it may be used.

We do not currently have any agreements with third-party manufacturers for long-term commercial supply. In the future, we may be unable to enter into agreements with third-party manufacturers for commercial supplies of any drug candidate that we develop, or may be unable to do so on acceptable terms. Even if we are able to establish and maintain arrangements with third-party manufacturers, reliance on third-party manufacturers entails risks, including:

 

 

reliance on the third party for regulatory compliance and quality assurance;

 

 

the possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by the third party;

 

 

the possible misappropriation of our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and know-how; and

 

 

the possible termination or non-renewal of the agreement by the third party at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us.

 

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Third-party manufacturers may not be able to comply with cGMP requirements or similar regulatory requirements outside the United States. Our failure, or the failure of our third-party manufacturers, to comply with applicable requirements could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of drug candidates or products, operating restrictions and/or criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our drug candidates.

Our future drug candidates and any products that we may develop may compete with other drug candidates and products for access to manufacturing facilities. There are a limited number of manufacturers that operate under cGMP requirements and that might be capable of manufacturing for us.

If the third parties that we engage to supply any materials or manufacture product for our nonclinical studies and clinical trials should cease to continue to do so for any reason, we likely would experience delays in advancing these studies and trials while we identify and qualify replacement suppliers or manufacturers and we may be unable to obtain replacement supplies on terms that are favorable to us or at all. In addition, if we are not able to obtain adequate supplies of our drug candidates or the substances used to manufacture them, it will be more difficult for us to develop our drug candidates and compete effectively.

Some of our third-party manufacturers which we use for the supply of materials for drug candidates or other materials necessary to manufacture product to conduct clinical trials are located in countries affected by COVID-19, and should they experience disruptions, such as temporary closures or suspension of services, we would likely experience delays in advancing our clinical development.

Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacture of our drug candidates (or the key starting and intermediate materials for such drug candidates) may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to develop drug candidates and commercialize any products that receive marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.

Our future relationships with customers and third-party payors in the United States and elsewhere may be subject, directly or indirectly, to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, transparency, and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm, administrative burdens and diminished profits and future earnings.

Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors in the United States and elsewhere will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our future arrangements with third-party payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and the federal False Claims Act (the FCA), which may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we sell, market and distribute any products for which we obtain marketing approval. In addition, we may be subject to transparency laws by the U.S. federal and state governments and by governments in foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct our business. The applicable federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include:

 

 

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe, or rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce, or in return for, either the referral of an individual, or the purchase, lease, order or recommendation of any good, facility, item or service for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under the Medicare and Medicaid programs or other federal healthcare programs. A person or entity can be found guilty of violating the statute without actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it. The Anti-Kickback Statute has been interpreted to apply to

 

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arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on the one hand and prescribers, purchasers, and formulary managers on the other;

 

 

the federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the FCA, which prohibit any person or entity from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false, fictitious or fraudulent claim for payment to, or approval by, the federal government or knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to the federal government. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the FCA;

 

 

HIPAA, which created federal criminal statutes that prohibit knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (e.g., public or private) and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up by any trick or device a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services relating to healthcare matters. Similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity can be found guilty of violating HIPAA without actual knowledge of the statutes or specific intent to violate them;

 

 

the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, created under the ACA, and its implementing regulations, which requires manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) to report annually to CMS information related to payments or other transfers of value made to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Beginning in 2022, such obligations will include payments and other transfers of value provided in the previous year to certain other healthcare professionals, including physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified nurse anesthetists, anesthesiology assistants and certified nurse-midwives;

 

 

federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers; and

 

 

analogous state laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers; state laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; and healthcare laws in the EU and other jurisdictions, including reporting requirements detailing interactions with and payments to healthcare providers.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors available under such laws, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. The scope and enforcement of each of these laws is uncertain and subject to rapid change in the current environment of healthcare reform, especially in light of the lack of applicable precedent and regulations. Federal and state enforcement bodies have recently increased their scrutiny of interactions between healthcare companies and healthcare providers, which has led to a number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions and settlements in the healthcare industry. Ensuring that our business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws, as well as responding to investigations

 

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by government authorities, can be time- and resource-consuming and can divert management’s attention from the business.

If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other government regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, individual imprisonment, possible exclusion from participation in federal- and state-funded healthcare programs, contractual damages and the curtailment or restricting of our operations, as well as additional reporting obligations and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, any of which could harm our ability to operate our business and our financial results. Further, if the physicians or other providers or entities with whom we expect to do business are found not to be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs. In addition, the approval and commercialization of any drug candidate we develop outside the United States will also likely subject us to foreign equivalents of the healthcare laws mentioned above, among other foreign laws.

Risks related to intellectual property

If we and our collaborators are unable to obtain and maintain sufficient patent and other intellectual property protection for our drug candidates and technology, our competitors could develop and commercialize products and technology similar or identical to ours, and we may not be able to compete effectively in our market or successfully commercialize any drug candidates we may develop.

Our success depends in significant part on our ability and the ability of our current or future collaborators and licensors to obtain, maintain, enforce and defend patents and other intellectual property rights with respect to our drug candidates and technology and to operate our business without infringing, misappropriating, or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of others. If we and our current or future collaborators and licensors are unable to obtain and maintain sufficient intellectual property protection for our drug candidates or other drug candidates that we may identify, or if the scope of the intellectual property protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors and other third parties could develop and commercialize drug candidates similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates and other drug candidates that we may pursue may be impaired. We do not own any issued patents with respect to our programs, including our CHB and NASH programs, and we do not own or in-license any issued patents with claims that specifically recite our ALG-010133, ALG-000184, ALG-020572, ALG-125755 and ALG-055009 drug candidates. We can provide no assurance that any of our current or future patent applications will result in issued patents or that any issued patents will provide us with any competitive advantage. We cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art of which we and the patent examiner are unaware or that our interpretation of the relevance of prior art is correct. For example, there are certain patents and patent applications (and there may be other patents and patent applications) that are owned by third parties, including our competitors, that have (or may have) an earlier filing date, and could be determined to have an earlier priority date, than our patent applications relating to our STOPS candidate, ALG-010133. If a patent or patent application is determined to have an earlier priority date, it may prevent our patent applications from issuing at all or issuing in a form that provides any competitive advantage for our product candidates. Failure to obtain issued patents could have a material adverse effect on our ability to develop and commercialize our drug candidates. Even if our patent applications do issue as patents, third parties may be able to challenge the validity and enforceability of our patents on a variety of grounds, including that such third party’s patents and patent applications have an earlier priority date, and if such challenges are successful we may be required to obtain one or more licenses from such third parties, or be prohibited from commercializing our product candidates. We may not be able to obtain these licenses on acceptable or commercially reasonable terms, if at

 

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all, or these licenses may be non-exclusive, which could result in our competitors using the same intellectual property.

We seek to protect our proprietary positions by, among other things, filing patent applications in the United States and abroad related to our current drug candidates and other drug candidates that we may identify. Obtaining, maintaining, defending and enforcing pharmaceutical patents is costly, time consuming and complex, and we may not be able to file and prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications, or maintain, enforce and license any patents that may issue from such patent applications, at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output before it is too late to obtain patent protection. Moreover, under certain of our license or collaboration agreements, we may not have the right to control the preparation, filing, prosecution and maintenance of patent applications, or to maintain the rights to patents licensed to or from third parties.

We currently are the assignee of a number of U.S. provisional patent applications. U.S. provisional patent applications are not eligible to become issued patents until, among other things, we file a non-provisional patent application within 12 months of filing of one or more of our related provisional patent applications. With regard to such U.S. provisional patent applications, if we do not timely file any non-provisional patent applications, we may lose our priority dates with respect to our provisional patent applications and any patent protection on the inventions disclosed in our provisional patent applications. Further, in the event that we do timely file non-provisional patent applications relating to our provisional patent applications, we cannot predict whether any such patent applications will result in the issuance of patents or if such issued patents will provide us with any competitive advantage.

Although we enter into confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to confidential or patentable aspects of our research and development output, such as our employees, collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties, any of these parties may breach these agreements and disclose such output before a patent application is filed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to seek patent protection. Further, we may not be aware of all third-party intellectual property rights potentially relating to our drug candidates. Publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing or, in some cases, not at all. Therefore, we cannot know with certainty whether we were the first to make the inventions claimed in our patents or pending patent applications, or that we were the first to file for patent protection of such inventions.

The patent position of pharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal, technological and factual questions and has, in recent years, been the subject of much debate and litigation throughout the world. In addition, the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, or vice versa. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability, and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain. The subject matter claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced or eliminated before the patent issues, if at all, and its scope can be reinterpreted or narrowed after issuance. Therefore, our pending and future patent applications may not result in patents being issued in relevant jurisdictions that protect our drug candidates, in whole or in part, or that effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive drug candidates, and even if our patent applications issue as patents in relevant jurisdictions, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection for our drug candidates or technology, prevent competitors from competing with us or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Additionally, our competitors may be able to circumvent our patents by challenging their validity or by developing similar or alternative drug candidates or technologies in a non-infringing manner.

 

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The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability, and our patents may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. We may be subject to a third-party preissuance submission of prior art to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (the USPTO), or become involved in opposition, derivation, revocation, reexamination, inter partes review, post-grant review or interference proceedings challenging our patent rights or the patent rights of others, or other proceedings in the USPTO or applicable foreign offices that challenge priority of invention or other features of patentability. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could result in loss of exclusivity or ability to sell our products free from infringing the patents of third parties, patent claims being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable, in whole or in part, and limitation of the scope or duration of the patents directed to our drug candidates, all of which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical drug candidates or technology to compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize drug candidates or approved products (if any) without infringing third-party patent rights. In addition, if the breadth or strength of the claims of our patents and patent applications is threatened, regardless of the outcome, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to license, develop or commercialize current or future drug candidates, or could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise funds necessary to continue our research programs or clinical trials. Such proceedings also may result in substantial cost and require significant time from our scientists and management, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us.

In addition, given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new drug candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products or technology similar or identical to ours for a meaningful amount of time, or at all. Moreover, some of our licensed patents and owned or licensed patent applications may in the future be co-owned with third parties. If we are unable to obtain exclusive licenses to any such co-owners’ interest in such patents or patent applications, such co-owners may be able to license their rights to other third parties, including our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. In addition, we may need the cooperation of any such co-owners in order to enforce such patents against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided to us. Any of the foregoing could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We have entered into licensing and collaboration agreements with third parties. If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we license intellectual property rights to or from third parties, or these agreements are terminated, or we otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors or licensees, our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be harmed.

In addition to patent and other intellectual property rights we own or co-own, we have licensed, and may in the future license, patent and other intellectual property rights to and from other parties. In particular, we have in-licensed significant intellectual property rights from Emory and Luxna. Licenses may not provide us with exclusive rights to use the applicable intellectual property and technology in all relevant fields of use and in all territories in which we may wish to develop or commercialize our drug candidates, products (if approved) and technology in the future. As a result, we may not be able to prevent competitors from developing and commercializing competitive products or technologies.

In addition, in some circumstances, we may not have the right to control the preparation, filing and prosecution of patent applications or to maintain, defend and enforce the patents that we license to or from third parties, and we may have to rely on our partners to fulfill these responsibilities. For example, under the Luxna Agreement, we obtained a license from Luxna under patents relevant to certain aspects of our HBV programs as

 

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well as to various potential therapies, which we are pursuing to address SARS-CoV-2. Although we have review and comment rights regarding prosecution of patents that we license under the Luxna Agreement, Luxna retains ultimate decision-making control with respect to the prosecution of these patents. Additionally, under the Emory License Agreement, we obtained a license from Emory University under patents relevant to certain aspects of our small molecule CHB program. Although we direct prosecution of patents licensed under the Emory License Agreement, we are obligated to consult with Emory University with respect to prosecution of these patents and Emory and its counsel are responsible for making all filings related to such prosecution. Similarly, although we will control the prosecution of jointly developed patents resulting from our collaboration with the Rega Institute for Medical Research and the Centre for Drug Design and Discovery under the KU Leuven Agreement, we are obligated to consult with such parties with respect to prosecution of these patents. Consequently, any such licensed patents and applications may not be prepared, filed, prosecuted, maintained, enforced, and defended in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business. If our current or future licensors, licensees or collaborators fail to prepare, file, prosecute, maintain, enforce, and defend licensed patents and other intellectual property rights, such rights may be reduced or eliminated, and our right to develop and commercialize any of our drug candidates or technology that are the subject of such licensed rights could be adversely affected. In addition, our licensors may own or control intellectual property that has not been licensed to us and, as a result, we may be subject to claims, regardless of their merit, that we are infringing or otherwise violating the licensor’s rights.

If we fail to comply with our obligations, including the obligation to make various milestone payments and royalty payments, under any of the agreements under which we license intellectual property rights from third parties, such as the Emory License Agreement or Luxna Agreement, the licensor may have the right to terminate the license. Under some of our in-license agreements, as a sublicensee, we may be obligated to comply with applicable requirements, limitations or obligations of our sublicensors to other third parties. For example, the Luxna Agreement includes rights that Luxna in-licensed from Osaka University (Osaka), which are in turn sublicensed to us. Prior to granting such rights to Luxna, Osaka granted certain rights to third parties and therefore the rights we in-license from Luxna are subject to such third-party rights. Although we understand that these rights granted to such third parties are for uses outside the scope of our business, license agreements are complex, subject to multiple interpretations and disputes may arise regarding scope of such licensed rights. Further, under the Luxna Agreement and other in-licenses under which we sublicense certain rights, we rely on Luxna and our other sublicensors to comply with their obligations under their upstream license agreements, where we may have no relationship with the original licensor of such rights. If our sublicensors fail to comply with their obligations under their upstream license agreements, and the upstream license agreements are consequently terminated, such termination may result in the termination of our sublicenses.

If any of our license agreements are terminated, the underlying licensed patents fail to provide the intended exclusivity or we otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors, we could lose intellectual property rights that are important to our business or be prevented from developing and commercializing our drug candidates, and competitors could have the freedom to seek regulatory approval of, and to market, products identical to ours. Termination of these agreements or reduction or elimination of our rights under these agreements may also result in our having to negotiate new or reinstated agreements with less favorable terms, cause us to lose our rights under these agreements, including our rights to important intellectual property or technology, or impede, delay or prohibit the further development or commercialization of one or more drug candidates that rely on such agreements. It is possible that we may be unable to obtain any additional licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all. In that event, we may be required to expend significant time and resources to redesign our drug candidates or the methods for manufacturing them

 

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or to develop or license replacement technology, all of which may not be feasible on a technical or commercial basis.

In addition, the research resulting in certain of our owned and in-licensed patent rights and technology may have been funded in part by the U.S. federal or state governments. As a result, the government may have certain rights, including march-in rights, to such patent rights and technology. When new technologies are developed with government funding, the government generally obtains certain rights in any resulting patents, including a non-exclusive license authorizing the government to use the invention for noncommercial purposes. These rights may permit the government to disclose our confidential information to third parties or allow third parties to use our licensed technology. The government can exercise its march-in rights if it determines that action is necessary because we fail to achieve practical application of the government-funded technology, or because action is necessary to alleviate health or safety needs, to meet requirements of federal regulations, or to give preference to U.S. industry. In addition, our rights in such inventions may be subject to certain requirements to manufacture products embodying such inventions in the United States. Any of the foregoing could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Licensing of intellectual property is of critical importance to our business and involves complex legal, business and scientific issues and certain provisions in intellectual property license agreements may be susceptible to multiple interpretations. Disputes may arise between us and our licensing partners regarding intellectual property subject to a license agreement, including:

 

 

the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation-related issues;

 

 

whether and the extent to which technology and processes of one party infringe intellectual property of the other party that are not subject to the licensing agreement;

 

 

rights to sublicense patent and other rights to third parties;

 

 

any diligence obligations with respect to the use of the licensed technology in relation to development and commercialization of our drug candidates, and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations;

 

 

the ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property;

 

 

rights to transfer or assign the license; and

 

 

the effects of termination.

The resolution of any contract interpretation disagreement that may arise could narrow what we believe to be the scope of our rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology, or increase what we believe to be our financial or other obligations under the relevant agreement, either of which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. If disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on acceptable terms or at all, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize the affected drug candidates. Moreover, any dispute or disagreement with our licensing partners may result in the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our drug candidates or any future drug candidates, and may result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources away from our day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our business, financial conditions, results of operations and prospects.

Furthermore, current and future collaborators or strategic partners may develop, either alone or with others, products in related fields that are competitive with the products or potential products that are the subject of these collaborations. Competing products, either developed by our collaborators or strategic partners or to which the collaborators or strategic partners have rights, may result in the withdrawal of partner support for our drug candidates. Any of these developments could harm our product development efforts.

 

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In addition, if our licensors fail to abide by the terms of the license, if the licensors fail to prevent infringement by third parties or if the licensed patents or other rights are found to be invalid or unenforceable, our business, competitive position, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially harmed. For more information regarding our license agreements, see the section titled “Business—License agreements and collaborations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated by reference herein.

If we are unable to obtain licenses from third parties on commercially reasonable terms or at all, our business could be harmed.

It may be necessary for us to use the patented or proprietary technology of third parties to commercialize our products (if approved), in which case we would be required to obtain a license from these third parties. The licensing of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and more established companies may pursue strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may consider attractive or necessary. More established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, capital resources and greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We also may be unable to license or acquire third party intellectual property rights on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment or at all. If we are unable to license such technology, or if we are forced to license such technology on unfavorable terms, our business could be materially harmed. If we are unable to obtain a necessary license, we may be unable to develop or commercialize the affected drug candidates, which could materially harm our business, and the third parties owning such intellectual property rights could seek either an injunction prohibiting our sales, or, with respect to our sales, an obligation on our part to pay royalties and/or other forms of compensation. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it may be or become non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. For example, under the Emory License Agreement we currently have an exclusive license with respect to certain patents and a non-exclusive license with respect to certain of Emory’s specified know-how. Beginning in June 2022, the license to such patents will become non-exclusive with respect to all fields except for the treatment and prevention of HBV. For more information regarding our license agreements, see the section titled “Business—License agreements and collaborations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated by reference herein. Any of the foregoing could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may not identify relevant third-party patents or may incorrectly interpret the relevance, scope or expiration of a third-party patent, which might subject us to infringement claims or adversely affect our ability to develop and market our drug candidates.

We cannot guarantee that any of our or our licensors’ patent searches or analyses, including the identification of relevant patents, the scope of patent claims or the expiration of relevant patents, are complete or thorough, nor can we be certain that we have identified each and every third-party patent and pending patent application in the United States and abroad that is relevant to or necessary for the commercialization of our drug candidates in any jurisdiction. For example, U.S. patent applications filed before November 29, 2000 and certain U.S. patent applications filed after that date that will not be filed outside the United States remain confidential until patents issue. As mentioned above, patent applications in the United States and elsewhere are published approximately 18 months after the earliest filing for which priority is claimed, with such earliest filing date being commonly referred to as the priority date. Therefore, patent applications covering our drug candidates could have been filed by third parties without our knowledge. Additionally, pending patent applications that have been published can, subject to certain limitations, be later amended in a manner that could cover our drug candidates or the use of our drug candidates. The scope of a patent claim is determined by an interpretation of the law, the written disclosure in a patent and the patent’s prosecution history. Our

 

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interpretation of the relevance or the scope of a patent or a pending application may be incorrect, which may negatively impact our ability to market our drug candidates. We may incorrectly determine that our drug candidates are not covered by a third-party patent or may incorrectly predict whether a third party’s pending application will issue with claims of relevant scope. Our determination of the expiration date of any patent in the United States or abroad that we consider relevant may be incorrect, which may negatively impact our ability to develop and market our drug candidates. Our failure to identify and correctly interpret relevant patents may negatively impact our ability to develop and market our drug candidates.

We are aware of certain third-party issued patents and pending patent applications, including those of our competitors, that, if issued with their current claim scope, may be construed to cover our drug candidates, including ALG-055009, ALG-125755 and ALG-010133. In the event that any of these patents were asserted against us, we believe that we would have defenses against any such action, including that such patents are not valid. However, if any such patents were to be asserted against us and our defenses to such assertion were unsuccessful and alternative technology was not available or technologically or commercially practical, unless we obtain a license to such patents, we could be liable for damages, which could be significant and include treble damages and attorneys’ fees if we are found to willfully infringe such patents, and we could be precluded from commercializing any drug candidates that were ultimately held to infringe such patents.

In addition, if we fail to identify and correctly interpret relevant patents, we may be subject to infringement claims. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to successfully settle or otherwise resolve such infringement claims. If we fail in any such dispute, in addition to being forced to pay damages, which may be significant, we may be temporarily or permanently prohibited from commercializing any of our drug candidates that are held to be infringing. We might, if possible, also be forced to redesign drug candidates so that they no longer infringe the third-party intellectual property rights. Any of these events, even if we were ultimately to prevail, could require us to divert substantial financial and management resources that we would otherwise be able to devote to our business and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Patent terms may be inadequate to establish our competitive position on our drug candidates for an adequate amount of time.

Patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, if all maintenance fees are timely paid, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years from its earliest U.S. non-provisional filing date. Various extensions may be available, but the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited. Even if patents covering our drug candidates are obtained, once the patent life has expired for a drug candidate, we may be open to competition from competitive medications, including generic versions. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new drug candidates, patents directed towards such drug candidates might expire before or shortly after such drug candidates are commercialized. As a result, our owned and licensed patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing drug candidates similar or identical to ours for a meaningful amount of time, or at all.

Depending upon the timing, duration and conditions of any FDA marketing approval of our drug candidates, one or more of our owned or licensed U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act, and similar legislation in the EU and certain other countries. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits a patent term extension of up to five years for a patent covering an approved product as compensation for effective patent term lost during product development and the FDA regulatory review process. However, we may not receive an extension if we fail to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, fail to apply within applicable deadlines, fail to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents or otherwise fail to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the length of the extension could be less than we request. Only one patent per approved product can be extended, the extension cannot extend the total patent

 

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term beyond 14 years from approval and only those claims for the approved drug, a method for using it or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. If we are unable to obtain patent term extension or the term of any such extension is less than we request, the period during which we can enforce our patent rights for the applicable drug candidate will be shortened and our competitors may obtain approval to market competing products sooner. As a result, our revenue from applicable products could be reduced. Further, if this occurs, our competitors may take advantage of our investment in development and trials by referencing our clinical and nonclinical data and launch their product earlier than might otherwise be the case, and our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially harmed.

Further, there are detailed rules and requirements regarding the patents that may be submitted to the FDA for listing in the Orange Book. We may be unable to obtain patents covering our drug candidates that contain one or more claims that satisfy the requirements for listing in the Orange Book. Even if we submit a patent for listing in the Orange Book, the FDA may decline to list the patent, or a manufacturer of generic drugs may challenge the listing. If one of our drug candidates is approved and a patent covering that drug candidate is not listed in the Orange Book, a manufacturer of generic drugs would not have to provide advance notice to us of any abbreviated new drug application filed with the FDA to obtain permission to sell a generic version of such drug candidate. Any of the foregoing could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting, maintaining, defending and enforcing patents on our drug candidates in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and consequently our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States may be less extensive than those in the United States. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws in the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patents to develop their own products and may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patents, but enforcement rights are not as strong as those in the United States. These products may compete with our drug candidates and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of some countries do not favor the enforcement or protection of patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our intellectual property and proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful.

Many foreign countries, including some EU countries, India, Japan and China, have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled under specified circumstances to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In those countries, we may have limited remedies if patents are infringed or if we are compelled to grant a license to a third party, which could materially diminish the value of the applicable patents and limit our potential revenue opportunities. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we

 

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develop or license, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Changes in patent law could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our drug candidates.

Obtaining and enforcing patents in the pharmaceutical industry is inherently uncertain, due in part to ongoing changes in the patent laws. For example, in the United States, depending on decisions by Congress, the federal courts, and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents, and interpretation thereof, could change in unpredictable ways that could weaken our and our collaborators’ or licensors’ ability to obtain new patents or to enforce existing or future patents. For example, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled on several patent cases in recent years, either narrowing the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances or weakening the rights of patent owners in certain situations. Therefore, there is increased uncertainty with regard to our and our collaborators’ or licensors’ ability to obtain patents in the future, as well as uncertainty with respect to the value of patents once obtained.

Patent reform legislation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our and our collaborators’ or licensors’ patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our or our collaborators’ or licensors’ issued patents. For example, assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, prior to March 2013, in the United States, the first to invent the claimed invention was entitled to the patent, while outside the United States, the first to file a patent application was entitled to the patent. After March 2013, under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (the Leahy-Smith Act), enacted in September 2011, the United States transitioned to a first inventor to file system in which, assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether a third party was the first to invent the claimed invention. The Leahy-Smith Act also includes a number of significant changes that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted and may also affect patent litigation. These include allowing third-party submission of prior art to the USPTO during patent prosecution and additional procedures to challenge the validity of a patent by USPTO-administered post-grant proceedings, including post-grant review, inter partes review and derivation proceedings. The USPTO has developed new regulations and procedures to govern administration of the Leahy-Smith Act, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the Leahy-Smith Act, particularly the first inventor-to-file provisions. Accordingly, it is not clear what, if any, impact the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business. However, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our or our licensors’ patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our or our licensors’ issued patents. Similarly, statutory or judicial changes to the patent laws of other countries may increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of patent applications and the enforcement or defense of issued patents. All of the foregoing could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or other intellectual property, which could be expensive, time-consuming and unsuccessful, and issued patents directed towards our technology and drug candidates could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged.

Competitors and other third parties may infringe or otherwise violate our issued patents or other intellectual property or the patents or other intellectual property of our licensors and collaborators. In addition, our patents or the patents of our licensors and collaborators may become involved in inventorship or priority disputes. To counter infringement or other unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Significantly, our pending patent applications cannot be enforced against third parties practicing the technology claimed in such applications unless and until a patent issues from such applications. Our ability to enforce patent rights also depends on our ability to detect infringement. It

 

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may be difficult to detect infringers who do not advertise the components or methods that are used in connection with their products and services. Moreover, it may be difficult or impossible to obtain evidence of infringement in a competitor’s or potential competitor’s product or service. Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke these parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we infringe their patents or that our patents are invalid or unenforceable. In a patent infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, construe the patent’s claims narrowly or refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our owned or licensed patents at risk of being invalidated, held unenforceable or interpreted narrowly. We may find it impractical or undesirable to enforce our intellectual property against some third parties.

If we were to initiate legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent directed to our drug candidates, or one of our future drug candidates, the defendant could counterclaim that our patent is invalid or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness, non-enablement or insufficient written description. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO or made a misleading statement during prosecution. Third parties may also raise similar claims before the USPTO or an equivalent foreign body, even outside the context of litigation. Potential proceedings include reexamination, post-grant review, inter partes review, interference proceedings, derivation proceedings and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings). Such proceedings could result in the revocation of, cancellation of, or amendment to our patents in such a way that they no longer cover our technology or any drug candidates that we may develop. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art of which we and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent rights directed towards the applicable drug candidates or technology related to the patent rendered invalid or unenforceable. Such a loss of patent rights would materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Interference proceedings provoked by third parties or brought by us or declared by the USPTO may be necessary to determine the priority of inventions with respect to our patents or patent applications. An unfavorable outcome could require us to cease using the related technology or to attempt to license rights to it from the prevailing party. Our business could be materially harmed if the prevailing party does not offer us a license on commercially reasonable terms.

Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation.

Some of our competitors are larger than we are and have substantially greater resources. They are, therefore, likely to be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating our intellectual property. Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources, which could harm our business. In addition, the uncertainties associated with litigation could compromise our ability to raise the funds necessary to continue our clinical trials, continue our internal research programs, or in-license needed technology or other drug candidates. There could also be public

 

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announcements of the results of the hearing, motions, or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive those results to be negative, it could cause the price of shares of our common stock to decline. Any of the foregoing events could harm our business, financial condition, results of operation and prospects.

Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could negatively impact the success of our business.

Our commercial success depends upon our ability to develop, manufacture, market and sell our drug candidates and use our proprietary technologies without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property and other proprietary rights of third parties. There is considerable intellectual property litigation in the pharmaceutical industry. We may become party to, or threatened with, future adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our drug candidates and their manufacture and our other technology, including reexamination, interference, post-grant review, inter partes review or derivation proceedings before the USPTO or an equivalent foreign body. Numerous U.S.- and foreign-issued patents and pending patent applications owned by third parties exist in the fields in which we are developing our drug candidates. Third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be granted in the future, regardless of their merit.

Even if we believe third-party intellectual property claims are without merit, there is no assurance that a court would find in our favor on questions of claim scope, infringement, validity, enforceability or priority. A court of competent jurisdiction could hold that third-party patents asserted against us are valid, enforceable and infringed, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to commercialize any drug candidates we may develop and any other drug candidates or technologies covered by the asserted third-party patents. In order to successfully challenge the validity of any such U.S. patent in federal court, we would need to overcome a presumption of validity. As this burden is a high one requiring us to present clear and convincing evidence as to the invalidity of any such U.S. patent claim, there is no assurance that a court of competent jurisdiction would invalidate the claims of any such U.S. patent. If we are found to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate a third party’s intellectual property rights, and we are unsuccessful in demonstrating that such rights are invalid or unenforceable, we could be required to obtain a license from such a third party in order to continue developing and marketing our products and technology. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be or may become non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. We could be forced, including by court order, to cease commercializing the infringing technology or product. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our drug candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may have to pay substantial damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees for willful infringement, pay royalties and other fees, redesign our infringing drug candidate or obtain one or more licenses from third parties, which may be impossible or require substantial time and monetary expenditure. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could have a similar negative impact on our business. Any of the foregoing events would harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may be subject to claims by third parties asserting that we or our employees have infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated their intellectual property rights, or claiming ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.

Many of our employees were previously employed at other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants and advisors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these individuals have used

 

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or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such individual’s former employer. We may also be subject to claims that patents and applications we have filed to protect inventions made on our behalf by our employees, consultants and advisors, even those related to one or more of our drug candidates, are rightfully owned by their former or concurrent employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims.

If we fail in prosecuting or defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in prosecuting or defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs, delay development of our drug candidates and be a distraction to management. Any of the foregoing events would harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship of our patents and other intellectual property.

We or our licensors may be subject to claims that former employees, collaborators or other third parties have an interest in our owned or in-licensed patents, trade secrets, or other intellectual property as an inventor or co-inventor. For example, we or our licensors or collaborators may have inventorship disputes arising from conflicting obligations of employees, consultants or others who are involved in developing our drug candidates. While it is our policy to require our employees and contractors who may be involved in the development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who in fact develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. Our and their assignment agreements may not be self-executing or may be breached, and litigation may be necessary to defend against these and other claims challenging inventorship or our or our licensors’ or collaborators’ ownership of our owned or in-licensed patents, trade secrets or other intellectual property. If we or our licensors or collaborators fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of, or right to use, intellectual property that is important to our drug candidates. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats.

The degree of future protection, if any, afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations and may not adequately protect our business or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. For example:

 

 

others may be able to make products that are similar to any drug candidates we may develop or utilize similar technology but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we license or may own in the future;

 

 

we, or our current or future licensors or collaborators might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patent or pending patent application that we license or may own in the future;

 

 

we, or our current or future licensors or collaborators might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our or their inventions;

 

 

others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our owned or licensed intellectual property rights;

 

 

it is possible that our pending owned or licensed patent applications or those that we may own or license in the future will not lead to issued patents;

 

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issued patents that we hold rights to may be held invalid or unenforceable, including as a result of legal challenges by our competitors;

 

 

our competitors might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets;

 

 

we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;

 

 

the intellectual property rights of others may harm our business; and

 

 

we may choose not to file a patent in order to maintain certain trade secrets or know-how, and a third party may subsequently file a patent directed to such intellectual property.

Should any of these events occur, they could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Risks related to employee matters, managing our growth and other risks related to our business

We are highly dependent on our key personnel, and if we are not successful in attracting, motivating and retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.

We are highly dependent on our management, scientific and medical personnel, including our Chief Executive Officer, Dr. Blatt, and our President, Dr. Beigelman. The loss of the services of any of them may adversely impact the achievement of our objectives. Any of our executive officers could leave our employment at any time, as all of our employees are “at-will” employees. We currently do not have “key person” insurance on any of our employees.

Recruiting and retaining qualified employees, consultants and advisors for our business, including scientific and technical personnel, also will be critical to our success. Competition for skilled personnel is intense and the turnover rate can be high. We may not be able to attract and retain personnel on acceptable terms given the competition among numerous pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and academic institutions for skilled individuals. In addition, failure to succeed in nonclinical studies, clinical trials or applications for marketing approval may make it more challenging to recruit and retain qualified personnel. The inability to recruit, or the loss of services of certain executives, significant employees, consultants or advisors, may impede the progress of our research, development and commercialization objectives and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We currently have no sales organization. If we are unable to establish sales capabilities on our own or through third parties, we may not be able to market and sell any products effectively, if approved, or generate product revenue.

We currently do not have a marketing or sales organization. In order to commercialize any product, if approved, in the United States and foreign jurisdictions, we must build our marketing, sales, distribution, managerial and other non-technical capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services, and we may not be successful in doing so. In advance of any of our drug candidates receiving regulatory approval, we expect to establish a sales organization with technical expertise and supporting distribution capabilities to commercialize each such drug candidate, which will be expensive and time-consuming. We have no prior experience in the marketing, sale and distribution of pharmaceutical products, and there are significant risks involved in building and managing a sales organization, including our ability to hire, retain, and incentivize qualified individuals, generate sufficient sales leads, provide adequate training to sales and marketing

 

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personnel, and effectively manage a geographically dispersed sales and marketing team. Any failure or delay in the development of our internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities would adversely impact the commercialization of our drug candidates. We may choose to collaborate with third parties that have direct sales forces and established distribution systems, either to augment our own sales force and distribution systems or in lieu of our own sales force and distribution systems. If we are unable to enter into such arrangements on acceptable terms or at all, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our drug candidates. If we are not successful in commercializing products, either on our own or through arrangements with one or more third parties, we may not be able to generate any future product revenue and we would incur significant additional losses.

We will need to grow the size of our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth.

As of March 31, 2021, we had 80 full-time employees, including 64 employees engaged in research and development. As our development and commercialization plans and strategies develop, and as we transition into operating as a public company, we expect to need additional managerial, operational, sales, marketing, financial and other personnel. Future growth would impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including:

 

 

identifying, recruiting, integrating, maintaining and motivating additional employees;

 

 

managing our internal development efforts effectively, including the clinical and FDA review process for our current drug candidates and any other drug candidate we develop, while complying with our contractual obligations to contractors and other third parties; and

 

 

expanding and enhancing our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures.

Our future financial performance and our ability to advance development of and, if approved, commercialize our current drug candidates and any other drug candidate we develop will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth, and our management may also have to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from day-to-day activities in order to devote a substantial amount of time to managing these growth activities.

We currently rely, and for the foreseeable future will continue to rely, in substantial part on certain independent organizations, advisors and consultants to provide certain services, including substantially all aspects of marketing, clinical management, and manufacturing. We cannot assure you that the services of independent organizations, advisors and consultants will continue to be available to us on a timely basis when needed or at a reasonable cost, or that we can find qualified replacements. In addition, if we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by consultants is compromised for any reason, our nonclinical studies and clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain marketing approval of any current or future drug candidates or otherwise advance our business. We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage our existing consultants or find other competent outside contractors and consultants on economically reasonable terms, or at all.

If we are not able to effectively expand our organization by hiring new employees and expanding our groups of consultants and contractors, we may experience delays or may not be able to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop and commercialize our current drug candidates and any future drug candidates we develop and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development and commercialization goals.

 

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If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

We are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological and radioactive materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials, and we generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use or third-party disposal of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties.

Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We do not maintain insurance for environmental liability or toxic tort claims that may be asserted against us in connection with our storage or disposal of biological, hazardous or radioactive materials, and as such we would have to pay the full amount of any resultant liability out of pocket, which could significantly impair our financial condition.

We or the third parties upon whom we depend may be adversely affected by earthquakes or other natural disasters and our business continuity and disaster recovery plans may not adequately protect us from a serious disaster.

Our corporate headquarters and other facilities are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, which in the past has experienced both severe earthquakes and wildfires. We are also conducting our initial clinical trials for ALG-010133 and ALG-000184 in New Zealand, an area also known for earthquakes. We do not carry earthquake insurance, and as such we would have to pay the full amount of any resultant liability out of pocket, which could significantly impair our financial condition. In addition, earthquakes, wildfires or other natural disasters could severely disrupt our operations. If a natural disaster, power outage or other event occurred that prevented us from using all or a significant portion of our headquarters, that damaged critical infrastructure, such as our enterprise financial systems or manufacturing resource planning and enterprise quality systems, that delayed our clinical trials, or that otherwise disrupted operations, it may be difficult or, in certain cases, impossible, for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time. The disaster recovery and business continuity plans we have in place currently are limited and are unlikely to prove adequate in the event of a serious disaster or similar event. We may incur substantial expenses as a result of the limited nature of our disaster recovery and business continuity plans, which, particularly when taken together with our lack of earthquake insurance, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. Furthermore, integral parties in our supply chain are similarly vulnerable to natural disasters or other sudden, unforeseen and severe adverse events. If such an event were to affect our supply chain, it could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our employees, independent contractors, vendors, principal investigators, CROs, consultants and collaborators may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements and insider trading.

We are exposed to the risk that our employees, independent contractors, vendors, principal investigators, CROs, consultants and collaborators may engage in fraudulent conduct or other illegal activity. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless and/or negligent conduct or disclosure of unauthorized activities to us that violate the regulations of the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including those laws

 

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requiring the reporting of true, complete and accurate information to such authorities; healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations in the United States and abroad; or laws that require the reporting of financial information or data accurately. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Activities subject to these laws also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials or creating fraudulent data in our nonclinical studies or clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and cause serious harm to our reputation. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by employees and other third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. Additionally, we are subject to the risk that a person could allege such fraud or other misconduct, even if none occurred. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and curtailment of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

Risks related to our common stock and this offering

If you purchase our common stock in this offering, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution in the book value of your shares.

The public offering price of our common stock is substantially higher than the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock. Therefore, if you purchase our common stock in this offering, you will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds the as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the completion of this offering. Based on an assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, which is the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021, you will experience immediate dilution of $19.78 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2021 and the assumed public offering price. Furthermore, if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares, or outstanding options are exercised, you could experience further dilution. See “Dilution” for a more detailed description of the dilution to new investors in the offering.

The price of our common stock has been volatile and our stockholders may not be able to resell shares of our common stock at or above the price they paid.

Our stock price has been volatile. The stock market in general and the market for biopharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, for example, has negatively affected the stock market and investor sentiment and has resulted in significant volatility. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

 

 

the success of our and competitive products or technologies;

 

 

results of clinical trials and nonclinical studies or those of our competitors;

 

 

regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;

 

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developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;

 

 

the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

 

 

the level of expenses related to our drug candidates or clinical development programs;

 

 

the results of our efforts to discover, develop, acquire or in-license drug candidates;

 

 

actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;

 

 

variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

 

 

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;

 

 

market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;

 

 

general economic, political, and market conditions and overall fluctuations in the financial markets in the United States and abroad;

 

 

developments related to the COVID-19 pandemic; and

 

 

investors’ general perception of us and our business.

These and other market and industry factors may cause the market price and demand for our common stock to fluctuate substantially, regardless of our actual operating performance, which may limit or prevent investors from selling their shares at or above the price paid for the shares and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of our common stock.

Some companies that have experienced volatility in the trading price of their shares have been the subject of securities class action litigation. Any lawsuit to which we are a party, with or without merit, may result in an unfavorable judgment. We also may decide to settle lawsuits on unfavorable terms. Any such negative outcome could result in payments of substantial damages or fines, damage to our reputation or adverse changes to our business practices. Defending against litigation is costly and time-consuming, and could divert our management’s attention and our resources. Furthermore, during the course of litigation, there could be negative public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, which could have a further negative effect on the market price of our common stock.

An active trading market for our common stock may not be sustained.

Prior to our initial public offering in October 2020, there was no public market for shares of our common stock and an active trading market for our shares may not be sustained. In the absence of an active trading market for our common stock, investors may not be able to sell their common stock at a price or at the time that they would like to sell.

An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other drug candidates, businesses, or technologies using our shares as consideration.

We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our common stock so any returns will be limited to the value of our stock.

We do not intend to pay any cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to invest our future earnings, if any, to fund our growth. Therefore, investors are not likely to receive any dividends on common stock owned by them for the foreseeable future. Since we do not intend to pay dividends, an investor’s ability to receive a return on its investment will depend on any future appreciation in the market value of our common stock. There is no guarantee that our common stock will appreciate or even maintain the price at which our holders purchased it.

 

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We are an emerging growth company and a smaller reporting company, and we cannot be certain if the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies and smaller reporting companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the JOBS Act). For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, certain disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and the requirements of holding nonbinding advisory votes on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) December 31, 2025, (2) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (3) the last day of the fiscal year in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which requires the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates to exceed $700.0 million as of the prior June 30th, or (4) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have elected to use the extended transition period for any other new or revised accounting standards during the period in which we remain an emerging growth company; however, we may adopt certain new or revised accounting standards early. As a result, changes in rules of U.S. generally accepted accounting principles or their interpretation, the adoption of new guidance or the application of existing guidance to changes in our business could significantly affect our financial position and results of operations.

Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may continue to qualify as a smaller reporting company, which would allow us to rely on certain reduced disclosure requirements, such as an exemption from providing selected financial data and executive compensation information. We are also exempt from the requirement to obtain an external audit on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting provided in Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. These exemptions and reduced disclosures due to our status as a smaller reporting company mean that our auditors do not review our internal controls over financial reporting and may make it harder for investors to analyze our results of operations and financial prospects.

We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions as an emerging growth company and a smaller reporting company. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

Our executive officers, directors and their affiliates have significant influence over our company, which will limit an investor’s ability to influence corporate matters and could delay or prevent a change in corporate control.

As of March 31, 2021, our executive officers, directors and their affiliates beneficially own, in the aggregate, approximately 60.7% of our outstanding common stock (assuming all shares of non-voting common stock are converted into voting common stock in accordance with the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation). As a result, these stockholders, if they act together, will be able to influence our management and affairs and the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any sale, merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, this concentration of ownership might adversely affect the market price of our common stock by:

 

 

delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control of us;

 

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impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us; or

 

discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

The dual class structure of our common stock may limit an investor’s ability to influence corporate matters and may limit the visibility with respect to certain transactions.

The dual class structure of our common stock may limit an investor’s ability to influence corporate matters. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of our non-voting common stock are not entitled to any votes. Nonetheless, each share of our non-voting common stock may be converted at any time into one share of our common stock at the option of its holder by providing written notice to us, subject to the limitations provided for in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. Consequently, the exercise by holders of our non-voting common stock of their option to make this conversion will have the effect of increasing the relative voting power of such holders, and correspondingly decreasing the voting power of the holders of our common stock, which may limit an investor’s ability to influence corporate matters. As of March 31, 2021, we had 3,092,338 shares of non-voting common stock outstanding, which as of such date represented 8.1% our total outstanding shares of common stock. Additionally, stockholders who hold, in the aggregate, more than 10% of our common stock and non-voting common stock, but 10% or less of our common stock, and are not otherwise a company insider, may not be required to report changes in their ownership due to transactions in our non-voting common stock pursuant to Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), and may not be subject to the short-swing profit provisions of Section 16(b) of the Exchange Act.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.

If our existing stockholders sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decline.

As of March 31, 2021, approximately 8,740,647 shares of common stock that are either subject to outstanding options or reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans are eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting schedules, lock-up agreements entered into with the underwriters by our executive officers, directors and certain affiliated stockholders in connection with this offering, and Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act. If these additional shares of common stock are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decline.

In addition, the holders of approximately 16.3 million shares of our common stock and non-voting common stock, are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act described above. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in the shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act, except for shares purchased by affiliates. Any sales of securities by these stockholders could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

We have broad discretion in how we use the proceeds of this offering and may not use these proceeds effectively, which could affect our results of operations and cause our stock price to decline.

We will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering. As a result, investors will be relying upon management’s judgment with only limited information about our specific intentions for the use of the net proceeds from this offering. We may use the net proceeds from this offering for purposes that do not yield a significant return or any return at all for our stockholders. In addition, pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

 

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Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes will be limited.

Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code), and corresponding provisions of state law, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change” (generally defined as a greater than 50 percentage point change (by value) in its equity ownership over a rolling three-year period), the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss (NOL) carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income may be limited. We performed a Section 382 analysis in 2020 and determined there was an ownership change that resulted in Section 382 limitations. The ownership change will limit our ability to utilize net operating losses against future taxable income but is not expected to result in any NOLs expiring unused. We may in the future experience ownership changes as a result of changes in our stock ownership (some of which are not in our control). In addition, under current tax law, federal NOL carryforwards generated in periods after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely but, in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, may only be used to offset 80% of our taxable income in any year. For these reasons, our ability to utilize our NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes to reduce future tax liabilities will be limited.

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they publish negative evaluations of our stock, the price of our stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock relies, in part, on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. If no or few analysts commence coverage of us, the trading price of our stock would likely decrease. If one or more of the analysts covering our business downgrade their evaluations of our stock or if we fail to meet their published expectations for us, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover our stock, we could lose visibility in the market for our stock, which, in turn, could cause our stock price to decline.

If we fail to implement and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be impaired, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting and the trading price of our common stock may decline.

Pursuant to Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley, our management will be required to report upon the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting beginning with the annual report for our fiscal year ending December 31, 2021. When we lose our status as an “emerging growth company,” our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. The rules governing the standards that must be met for management to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation. To comply with the requirements of being a reporting company under the Exchange Act, we will need to implement additional financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures and hire additional accounting and finance staff, all of which will entail additional expense.

We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to implement and maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.

 

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Provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could discourage a takeover that stockholders may consider favorable and may lead to entrenchment of management.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent changes in control or changes in our management without the consent of our board of directors. These provisions include the following:

 

 

a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which may delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;

 

 

no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;

 

 

the exclusive right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

 

 

the ability of our board of directors to authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquiror;

 

 

the ability of our board of directors to alter our amended and restated bylaws without obtaining stockholder approval;

 

 

the required approval of at least 66 2/3% of the shares entitled to vote at an election of directors to adopt, amend or repeal our amended and restated bylaws or repeal the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation regarding the election and removal of directors;

 

 

a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;

 

 

the requirement that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our chief executive officer or, in the absence of a chief executive officer, president or by the board of directors, which may delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors; and

 

 

advance notice procedures that stockholders must comply with in order to nominate candidates to our board of directors or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which may discourage or deter a potential acquiror from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquiror’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

We are also subject to the anti-takeover provisions contained in Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Under Section 203, a corporation may not, in general, engage in a business combination with any holder of 15% or more of its capital stock unless the holder has held the stock for three years or, among other exceptions, the board of directors has approved the transaction. For a description of our capital stock, see the section titled “Described of capital stock.”

Claims for indemnification by our directors and officers may reduce our available funds to satisfy successful third-party claims against us and may reduce the amount of money available to us.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors and officers, in each case to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law.

 

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In addition, as permitted by Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated bylaws and our indemnification agreements that we have entered into with our directors and officers provide that:

 

 

we will indemnify our directors and officers for serving us in those capacities or for serving other business enterprises at our request, to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Delaware law provides that a corporation may indemnify such person if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the registrant and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful;

 

 

we may, in our discretion, indemnify employees and agents in those circumstances where indemnification is permitted by applicable law;

 

 

we are required to advance expenses, as incurred, to our directors and officers in connection with defending a proceeding, except that such directors or officers shall undertake to repay such advances if it is ultimately determined that such person is not entitled to indemnification;

 

 

we will not be obligated pursuant to our amended and restated bylaws to indemnify a person with respect to proceedings initiated by that person against us or our other indemnitees, except with respect to proceedings authorized by our board of directors;

 

 

the rights conferred in our amended and restated bylaws are not exclusive, and we are authorized to enter and have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors, officers, employees and agents and to obtain insurance to indemnify such persons; and

 

 

we may not retroactively amend our amended and restated bylaw provisions to reduce our indemnification obligations to directors, officers, employees and agents.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides for an exclusive forum in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware for certain disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation specifies that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws or any action as to which the Delaware General Corporation Law confers jurisdiction to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation also provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America is the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action against us or any of our directors, officers, employees or agents and arising under the Securities Act. We believe these provisions may benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law and federal securities laws by chancellors and judges, as applicable, particularly experienced in resolving corporate disputes, efficient administration of cases on a more expedited schedule relative to other forums and protection against the burdens of multi-forum litigation. However, these provisions may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers. The choice of forum provision requiring that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or the federal district courts of the United States of America be the exclusive forum for certain actions does not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act. Our exclusive forum provision does not relieve us of our duties to comply with the federal securities laws and the

 

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rules and regulations thereunder, and our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with these laws, rules and regulations. Although our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provisions described above, it is possible that a court could find that such a provision is inapplicable for a particular claim or action or that such provision is unenforceable.

General risk factors

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies.

To date, we have primarily financed our operations through the sale of common stock, preferred stock and convertible notes. We will be required to seek additional funding in the future and may to do so through public or private equity offerings or debt financings, credit or loan facilities, collaborations or a combination of one or more of these funding sources. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may suffer dilution and the terms of any equity financing may adversely affect the rights of our stockholders. In addition, as a condition to providing additional funds to us, future investors may demand, and may be granted, rights superior to those of existing stockholders. Debt financing, if available, is likely to involve restrictive covenants limiting our flexibility in conducting future business activities, and, in the event of insolvency, debt holders would be repaid before holders of our equity securities received any distribution of our corporate assets. If we raise additional capital through marketing and distribution arrangements or other collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish certain valuable rights to our drug candidates, technologies, future revenue streams or research programs or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. Attempting to secure additional financing may also divert our management’s attention from our day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop our drug candidates.

Unfavorable global economic conditions could adversely affect our business, financial condition, stock price and results of operations.

Our results of operations could be adversely affected by general conditions in the global economy and in the global financial markets. For example, the 2008 global financial crisis caused extreme volatility and disruptions in the capital and credit markets. A severe or prolonged economic downturn, such as the 2008 global financial crisis, could result in a variety of risks to our business, including, weakened demand for any drug candidates we may develop and our ability to raise additional capital when needed on acceptable terms, if at all. A weak or declining economy could also strain our suppliers, possibly resulting in supply disruption. If the current equity and credit markets deteriorate, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult, more costly, and more dilutive. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our growth strategy, financial performance and stock price and could require us to delay or abandon clinical development plans. In addition, there is a risk that one or more of our current service providers, manufacturers or other partners may not survive such difficult economic times, which could directly affect our ability to attain our operating goals on schedule and on budget. Any of the foregoing could harm our business and we cannot anticipate all of the ways in which the current economic climate and financial market conditions could adversely impact our business. Furthermore, our stock price may decline due in part to the volatility of the stock market and any general economic downturn.

Our insurance policies are expensive and protect us only from some business risks, which leaves us exposed to significant uninsured liabilities.

We do not carry insurance for all categories of risk that our business may encounter. Some of the policies we currently maintain include general liability, property, umbrella, clinical trials and directors’ and officers’

 

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insurance. Any additional insurance coverage we acquire in the future may not be sufficient to reimburse us for any expenses or losses we may suffer. Moreover, insurance coverage is becoming increasingly expensive and in the future we may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses due to liability. Any significant uninsured liability may require us to pay substantial amounts, which would adversely affect our cash position and results of operations.

We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified people to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.

The United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.

Following a national referendum and enactment of legislation by the government of the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom formally withdrew from the European Union and ratified a trade and cooperation agreement governing its future relationship with the European Union. The agreement, which is being applied provisionally from January 1, 2021 until it is ratified by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, addresses trade, economic arrangements, law enforcement, judicial cooperation and a governance framework including procedures for dispute resolution, among other things. Because the agreement merely sets forth a framework in many respects and will require complex additional bilateral negotiations between the United Kingdom and the European Union as both parties continue to work on the rules for implementation, significant political and economic uncertainty remains about how the precise terms of the relationship between the parties will differ from the terms before withdrawal.

These developments, or the perception that any related developments could occur, have had and may continue to have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and financial markets, and may significantly reduce global market liquidity, restrict the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets or restrict our access to capital. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce the price of our common stock.

We are subject to certain U.S. and foreign anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, export control, sanctions, and other trade laws and regulations, violations of which can have serious negative consequences for our business.

U.S. and foreign anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, export control, sanctions, and other trade laws and regulations (collectively, Trade Laws), prohibit, among other matters, companies and their employees, agents, clinical research organizations, legal counsel, accountants, consultants, contractors, and other partners from authorizing, promising, offering, providing, soliciting, or receiving directly or indirectly, corrupt or improper payments or anything else of value to or from recipients in the public or private sector. Violations of Trade Laws can result in substantial criminal fines and civil penalties, imprisonment, the loss of trade privileges, debarment, tax reassessments, breach of contract and fraud litigation, and reputational harm, among other consequences. We routinely have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or government-affiliated hospitals, universities, and other organizations, and we expect our non-U.S. activities to increase in time. We plan to engage third parties for clinical trials and/or obtain necessary permits, licenses, patent registrations, and other regulatory approvals from such officials, employees and government agencies and affiliates and we may be held liable for any corrupt or other illegal activities of our personnel, agents, or partners, even if we do not explicitly authorize or have prior knowledge of such activities.

 

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Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent rights, if any, could be reduced or eliminated if we fail to comply with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees, and various other fees are required to be paid to the USPTO and foreign patent agencies in several stages over the lifetime of a patent. In certain circumstances, we rely on our collaborators or licensors to pay these fees. The USPTO and various foreign patent agencies also require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar requirements during the patent application and prosecution process. Non-compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include failure to respond to official communications within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. While an inadvertent lapse can in some cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which non-compliance can result in irrevocable abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. If we or our licensors fail to maintain the patents and patent applications covering our drug candidates, our competitors might be able to enter the market with similar or identical products or technology, which would harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Intellectual property litigation could cause us to spend substantial resources and distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities.

Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses, and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. As noted above, some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could compromise our ability to compete in the marketplace, including compromising our ability to raise the funds necessary to continue our clinical trials, continue our research programs, license necessary technology from third parties, or enter into development collaborations that would help us commercialize our drug candidates, if approved. Any of the foregoing events would harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

We rely on confidential methodologies and processes and confidentiality agreements to protect our unpatented know-how, technology and other proprietary information and to maintain our competitive position. Trade secrets and know-how can be difficult to protect. We seek to protect these trade secrets and other proprietary technology, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, licensors, collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants. We cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or has had access to our trade secrets or proprietary technology and processes. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such

 

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breaches. Unauthorized parties may also attempt to copy or reverse engineer certain aspects of our drug candidates that we consider proprietary. Monitoring unauthorized uses and disclosures is difficult, and we do not know whether the steps we have taken to protect our proprietary information will be effective.

We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our confidential proprietary information by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems, but it is possible that these security measures could be breached. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, our competitive position would be materially and adversely harmed.

If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

Our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we need to build name recognition among potential collaborators or customers in our markets of interest. At times, competitors may adopt trade names or trademarks similar to ours, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to market confusion. In addition, there could be potential trade name or trademark infringement claims brought by owners of other trademarks or trademarks that incorporate variations of our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected. Further, we may license our trademarks and trade names to third parties, such as distributors. Though these license agreements may provide guidelines for how our trademarks and trade names may be used, a breach of these agreements or misuse of our trademarks and tradenames by our licensees may jeopardize our rights in or diminish the goodwill associated with our trademarks and trade names. Our efforts to enforce or protect our proprietary rights related to trademarks, trade names, trade secrets, domain names, copyrights or other intellectual property may be ineffective and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may in the future engage in strategic transactions; such transactions could affect our liquidity, dilute our existing stockholders, increase our expenses and present significant challenges in focus and energy to our management or prove not to be successful.

From time to time, we may consider strategic transactions, such as acquisitions of companies, asset purchases and out-licensing or in-licensing of intellectual property, products or technologies.

Such potential transactions that we may consider in the future include a variety of business arrangements, including spin-offs, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, restructurings, divestitures, business combinations, investments and licensings. Any future transactions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, including our common stock, or the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, amortization expenses or acquired in-process research and development expenses, any of which could affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. Future acquisitions may also require us to obtain additional financing, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all. These transactions may never be successful and may require significant time and attention of management. In addition, the integration of any business that we may acquire

 

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in the future may disrupt our existing business and may be a complex, risky and costly endeavor for which we may never realize the full benefits of the acquisition.

Public health pandemics or epidemics, political instability, terrorist attacks, other acts of violence or war, or other unexpected events could materially and adversely impact us.

Public health pandemics or epidemics, political instability, terrorist attacks, other acts of violence or war or other unexpected events could materially interrupt our business operations (or those of the third parties upon whom we depend), cause consumer confidence and spending to decrease or result in increased volatility in the United States and worldwide financial markets and economy. They also could result in or prolong an economic recession in the United States. Any of these occurrences could materially and adversely affect us.

Current or future litigation or administrative proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, our financial condition and our results of operations.

We may be involved in legal proceedings, administrative proceedings, claims, and other litigation that arise in the ordinary course of business. Unfavorable outcomes or developments relating to proceedings to which we are a party or transactions involving our current or future drug candidates, such as judgments for monetary damages, injunctions, or denial or revocation of permits, could have a material adverse effect on our business, our financial condition, and our results of operations. In addition, settlement of claims could adversely affect our financial condition and our results of operations.

We incur significantly increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.

As a public company, we are incurring significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not previously incur as a private company. We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, which requires, among other things, that we file with the SEC, annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently adopted by the SEC and Nasdaq to implement provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, impose significant requirements on public companies, including requiring establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and changes in corporate governance practices. Further, in July 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the Dodd-Frank Act) was enacted. There are significant corporate governance and executive compensation-related provisions in the Dodd-Frank Act that require the SEC to adopt additional rules and regulations in these areas, such as “say on pay” and proxy access. Recent legislation permits emerging growth companies to implement many of these requirements over a longer period and up to five years from the pricing of the IPO. We intend to take advantage of this legislation, but cannot guarantee that we will not be required to implement these requirements sooner than budgeted or planned and thereby incur unexpected expenses. Stockholder activism, the current political environment and the current high level of government intervention and regulatory reform may lead to substantial new regulations and disclosure obligations, which may lead to additional compliance costs and impact the manner in which we operate our business in ways we cannot currently anticipate.

We expect the rules and regulations applicable to public companies to substantially increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly. If these requirements divert the attention of our management and personnel from other business concerns, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The increased costs will decrease our net income or increase our net loss, and may require us to reduce costs in other areas of our business or increase the prices of our products or services (if approved). For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. We

 

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cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.

We may experience fluctuations in our tax obligations and effective tax rate, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

We are subject to U.S. federal and state income taxes and taxes in certain other non-U.S. jurisdictions. Tax laws, regulations and administrative practices in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change, with or without advance notice, due to economic, political and other conditions, and significant judgment is required in evaluating and estimating our provision and accruals for these taxes. There are many transactions that occur during the ordinary course of business for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Our effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, such as changes in tax, accounting and other laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles and interpretations, the mix and level of earnings in a given taxing jurisdiction or our ownership or capital structures.

If we sell shares of our common stock in future financings, stockholders may experience immediate dilution and, as a result, our stock price may decline.

We may from time to time issue additional shares of common stock at a discount from the current trading price of our common stock. As a result, our stockholders would experience immediate dilution upon the purchase of any shares of our common stock sold at such discount. In addition, as opportunities present themselves, we may enter into financing or similar arrangements in the future, including the issuance of debt securities, preferred stock or common stock. If we issue common stock or securities convertible into common stock, our common stockholders would experience additional dilution and, as a result, our stock price may decline.

If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies are based on assumptions that change or prove to be incorrect, our operating results could fall below our publicly announced guidance or the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our common stock.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. If our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from our assumptions, our operating results may be adversely affected and could fall below our publicly announced guidance or the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our common stock.

 

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Special note regarding forward-looking statements

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 concerning our business, operations and financial performance and condition, as well as our plans, objectives and expectations for our business, operations and financial performance and condition. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “plan,” “predict,” “potential,” “positioned,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and other similar expressions that are predictions of or indicate future events and future trends, or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

 

the scope, progress, results and costs of developing our drug candidates or any other future drug candidates, and conducting nonclinical studies and clinical trials, including our ALG-010133 and ALG-000184 Phase 1 clinical trials;

 

 

the scope, progress, results and costs related to the research and development of our pipeline;

 

 

the timing of and costs involved in obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval for any of our current or future drug candidates, and any related restrictions or limitations;

 

 

the impact of developments related to COVID-19 on our business and operations, including clinical trials, manufacturing suppliers, collaborators, use of contract research organizations and employees;

 

 

our expectations regarding the potential market size and size of the potential patient populations for ALG-010133 and ALG-000184, our other drug candidates and any future drug candidates, if approved for commercial use;

 

 

our ability to maintain existing, and establish new, collaborations, licensing or other arrangements and the financial terms of any such agreements;

 

 

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and expectations;

 

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance of our drug candidates, as well as the pricing and reimbursement of our drug candidates, if approved;

 

 

the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business, drug candidates and technology, including additional indications for which we may pursue;

 

 

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our drug candidates, including the projected term of patent protection;

 

 

estimates of our expenses, future revenue, capital requirements, our needs for additional financing and our ability to obtain additional capital;

 

 

developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry, including competing therapies and procedures;

 

 

regulatory and legal developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

 

the performance of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers;

 

 

our ability to attract and retain key management, scientific and medical personnel;

 

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our expectations regarding the period during which we will qualify as an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012;

 

 

our use of the net proceeds from this offering; and

 

 

other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under the caption “Risk factors” and elsewhere and incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about our business and the industry in which we operate and management’s beliefs and assumptions and are not guarantees of future performance or development and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that are in some cases beyond our control. As a result, any or all of our forward-looking statements in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus may turn out to be inaccurate. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed under the section titled “Risk factors” and elsewhere in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus. Potential investors are urged to consider these factors carefully in evaluating the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future. You should, however, review the factors and risks we describe in the reports we will file from time to time with the SEC after the date of this prospectus. See the section titled “Where you can find more information.”

 

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Market and industry data

This prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference herein, contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry and business, as well as data regarding market research, estimates and forecasts prepared by our management. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. In that regard, when we refer to one or more sources of this type of data in any paragraph, you should assume that other data of this type appearing in the same paragraph is derived from the same sources, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

This industry, business, market and other information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. We have not independently verified any third-party information and cannot assure you of its accuracy or completeness. Although we are responsible for all of the disclosure contained in this prospectus and we believe the market position, market opportunity, market size and other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus is reliable, such information is inherently imprecise. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate is necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference herein. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

 

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Use of proceeds

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from the sale of 4,000,000 shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $100.0 million at the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, we estimate that the net proceeds will be approximately $115.1 million at the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021, would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, by $3.8 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same. We may also increase or decrease the number of shares we are offering. Each increase (decrease) of 1,000,000 in the number of shares we are offering would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, by $25.2 million, assuming the assumed public offering price stays the same. We do not expect that a change in the offering price or the number of shares by these amounts would have a material effect on our intended uses of the net proceeds from this offering, although it may impact the amount of time prior to which we may need to seek additional capital.

We currently expect to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments, to fund the continued advancement, including clinical development and drug manufacturing activities, of our STOPS candidate, ALG-010133, our CAM candidate, ALG-000184, and our ASO candidate, ALG-020572, as well as our nonclinical and research and development activities for our siRNA candidate, ALG-125755, and our NASH THR-ß candidate, ALG-055009, and to fund discovery and research to broaden our pipeline of drug and backup candidates, as well as for other general corporate purposes, which may include the hiring of additional personnel, capital expenditures and the costs of operating as a public company.

Due to the uncertainties inherent in the discovery, nonclinical and clinical development process and related regulatory approval processes, it is difficult to estimate with certainty the exact amounts of the net proceeds from this offering that may be used for the above purposes. As such, our management will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering. The amounts and timing of our expenditures may depend upon numerous factors, including: (i) the time and cost necessary to advance our drug candidates through nonclinical studies and clinical trials; (ii) the time and cost associated with our research and development activities for our pipeline; (iii) the time and cost associated with the manufacture and supply of drug candidates for clinical development; (iv) our ability to obtain regulatory approval for and subsequently commercialize our drug candidates; and (v) potential payments under our licensing agreements.

We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments, will enable us to fund our operations for at least 12 months following the date of this prospectus. After this offering, we will require substantial capital in order to advance our current and future drug candidates through clinical trials, regulatory approval and, if approved, commercialization. For additional information regarding our potential capital requirements, see “Risk factors—Even if this offering is successful, we will require substantial additional financing to achieve our goals, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. A failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or commercialization efforts.”

Pending the use of the proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing, investment-grade securities, certificates of deposit or government securities.

 

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Dividend policy

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings, if any, to fund the development and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon, among other factors, our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, business prospects and other factors our board of directors might deem relevant.

 

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Capitalization

The following table sets forth our cash, cash equivalents and investments and capitalization as of March 31, 2021:

 

 

on an actual basis;

 

 

on an as adjusted basis to give effect to the sale of 4,000,000 shares of common stock in this offering at the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021 after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

You should read this table together with “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

   
     As of March 31, 2021  
            Actual           As adjusted(1)  
      (in thousands, except share and
per share data)
 

Cash, cash equivalents and investments

   $ 213,415     $ 313,445  
  

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

    

Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share; 10,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, actual; 10,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, as adjusted

            

Common stock, $0.0001 par value per share; 300,000,000 shares authorized, 35,054,867 shares issued and outstanding, actual; 300,000,000 shares authorized, 39,054,867 shares issued and outstanding, as adjusted

     4       4  

Non-voting Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share; 20,000,000 shares authorized, 3,092,338 shares issued and outstanding, actual; 20,000,000 shares authorized, 3,092,338 shares issued and outstanding, as adjusted

            

Additional paid-in capital

     397,857       497,887  

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     (227     (227

Accumulated deficit

     (202,414     (202,414
  

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity

     195,220       295,250  
  

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 195,220     $ 295,250  

 

  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)   A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021 would increase (decrease) the amount of each of cash, cash equivalents and investments, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity and total capitalization by $3.8 million, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We may also increase or decrease the number of shares we are offering. Each increase (decrease) of 1,000,000 shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase (decrease) each of cash, cash equivalents and investments, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity and total capitalization by $25.2 million, assuming the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021 remains the same, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

The foregoing table and calculations above are based on 38,147,205 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and exclude the following:

 

 

5,515,723 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options as of March 31, 2021 having a weighted-average exercise price of $11.40 per share;

 

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176,600 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options granted after March 31, 2021 having a weighted-average exercise price of $25.93 per share;

 

 

2,921,213 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2020 Incentive Award Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan; and

 

 

750,107 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan.

 

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Dilution

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be immediately diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our common stock in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.

As of March 31, 2021, we had a historical net tangible book value of $195.2 million, or $5.12 per share of common stock. Our net tangible book value represents total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by 38,147,205 shares of common stock outstanding on March 31, 2021.

After giving effect to the sale of 4,000,000 shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2021 would have been $295.3 million, or $7.01 per share. This represents an immediate increase in as adjusted net tangible book value of $1.89 per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $19.78 per share to new investors. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

 

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 26.79  

Historical net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2021

   $ 5.12     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

     1.89     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

      $ 7.01  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

      $ 19.78  

 

 

Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021, would increase (decrease) our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2021 after this offering by $3.8 million, or $0.09 per share, and would increase (decrease) dilution to investors in this offering by $0.09 per share, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We may also increase or decrease the number of shares we are offering. Assuming the assumed public price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021, remains the same, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, each increase of 1,000,000 in the number of shares we are offering would increase our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2021 after this offering by approximately $25.2 million, or $0.42 per share, and would decrease dilution to investors in this offering by $0.42 per share, and a decrease of 1,000,000 in the number of shares we are offering would decrease our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2021 after this offering by $25.2 million, or $0.44 per share, and would increase dilution to investors in this offering by $0.44 per share. The as adjusted information is illustrative only, and we will adjust this information based on the actual public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares, as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering would increase to $7.26 per share, and there would be an immediate dilution of $19.53 per share to new investors, in each case assuming the assumed public offering price of $26.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 25, 2021 remains the same.

 

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To the extent that outstanding options with an exercise price per share that is less than the as adjusted net tangible book value per share are exercised, new investors will experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

The foregoing tables and calculations above are based on 38,147,205 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and exclude the following:

 

 

5,515,723 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options as of March 31, 2021 having a weighted-average exercise price of $11.40 per share;

 

 

176,600 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options granted after March 31, 2021 having a weighted-average exercise price of $25.93 per share;

 

 

2,921,213 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2020 Incentive Award Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan; and

 

 

750,107 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan.

 

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Description of capital stock

The following summary describes our capital stock and certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, the amended and restated investors’ rights agreement to which we and certain of our stockholders are parties and of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Because the following is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. For a complete description, you should refer to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, copies of which are incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part.

General

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes 300,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, 20,000,000 shares of non-voting common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share. As of March 31, 2021, there were outstanding:

 

 

5,515,723 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options;

 

 

38,147,205 shares of our common stock, held by approximately 99 stockholders of record. This number is comprised of 35,054,867 shares of voting common stock and 3,092,338 shares of non-voting common stock. The number of stockholders of record does not include beneficial owners whose shares are held by nominees in street name.

Common stock and non-voting common stock

The holders of our common stock and non-voting common stock have identical rights, provided that, (i) except as otherwise expressly provided in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or as required by applicable law, on any matter that is submitted to a vote by our stockholders, holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share of common stock, and holders of our non-voting common stock are not entitled to any votes per share of non-voting common stock, including for the election of directors, and (ii) holders of our common stock have no conversion rights, while holders of our non-voting common stock have the right to convert each share of non-voting common stock into one share of common stock at such holder’s election, provided that as a result of such conversion, such holder, together with its affiliates and any members of a Schedule 13(d) group with such holder, would not beneficially own in excess of 4.99% of our common stock immediately prior to and following such conversion, unless otherwise expressly provided for in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. However, this ownership limitation may be increased to any other percentage designated by such holder of non-voting common stock upon 61 days’ notice to us or decreased at any time upon notice to us.

Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the voting shares are able to elect all of the directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of holders of 66-2/3% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding voting stock will be required to take certain actions, including amending certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, such as the provisions relating to amending our amended and restated bylaws, our classified board and director liability.

Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock and non-voting common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.

 

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In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock and non-voting common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Holders of our common stock and non-voting common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock or non-voting common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock and non-voting common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate in the future.

All of our outstanding shares of common stock and non-voting common stock are, and the shares of common stock to be issued in this offering will be, fully paid and nonassessable.

Preferred stock

Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting, or the designation of, such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon our liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company or other corporate action. No shares of preferred stock are currently outstanding, and we have no present plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Options

As of March 31, 2021, we had outstanding options to purchase 5,515,723 shares of our common stock, with a per share weighted average exercise price of $11.40, under our 2020 Incentive Award Plan and our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan.

Registration rights

Under our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement certain holders of our common stock and non-voting common stock, or their transferees, have the right to require us to register their shares under the Securities Act so that those shares may be publicly resold, and certain holders of shares of our common stock and non-voting common stock, or their transferees, have the right to include their shares in any registration statement we file, in each case as described below. These rights have been waived with respect to this offering.

Form S-1 demand registration rights

Certain holders of our common stock and non-voting common stock, or their transferees, are entitled to certain Form S-1 demand registration rights. The holders of at least 30% of these shares can request that we register all or a portion of their shares (including the shares of common stock into which any shares of non-voting common stock held by such investors may be converted), so long as such holders request that we register at least 20% of the shares entitled to these demand registration rights and the aggregate proceeds, net of underwriting discounts and commissions, would exceed $20 million if the first offering or $5 million after the first offering. These stockholders may make up to two requests for registration on Form S-1.

 

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Form S-3 demand registration rights

Certain holders of our common stock and non-voting stock, or their transferees, are entitled to certain Form S-3 demand registration rights. If we are eligible to use a Form S-3 registration statement, the holders of these shares can request that we register all or a portion of their shares on a Form S-3 registration statement if the anticipated aggregate offering price is at least $2 million, net of underwriting discounts and commissions and certain other expenses related to the sale of the shares. These stockholders may make unlimited requests for registration on Form S-3, provided that we are not obligated to effect, or take any action to effect, a registration on Form S-3 if we have effected two registrations on Form S-3 pursuant to requests by these stockholders within the twelve month period immediately preceding such request.

Piggyback registration rights

In the event that we determine to register any of our common stock under the Securities Act (subject to certain exceptions), either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, certain holders of our common stock and non-voting common stock or their transferees are entitled to certain “piggyback” registration rights allowing the holders to include their shares in such registration, subject to certain marketing and other limitations and the conversion of non-voting common stock into shares of common stock prior to registration thereof. As a result, whenever we propose to file a registration statement under the Securities Act, other than with respect to certain registrations, including related to the sale of securities to employees pursuant to employee benefit plans, the offer and sale of convertible debt securities, an SEC Rule 145 transaction, or a registration on any form that does not include substantially the same information as would be required to be included in a registration statement covering the sale of the registerable shares, the holders of these shares are entitled to notice of the registration and have the right to include their shares of common stock in the registration. In an underwritten offering, the underwriters have the right, subject to specified conditions, to limit the number of shares such holders may include.

Expenses of registration

We will pay the registration expenses, excluding underwriting discounts and commissions and certain other expenses, of the holders of the shares registered pursuant to the Form S-1 demand, Form S-3 demand and piggyback registration rights described above, including the reasonable expenses of one counsel for the selling holders not to exceed $50,000.

Expiration of registration rights

The Form S-1 demand, Form S-3 demand and piggyback registration rights described above will terminate, with respect to any particular stockholder, upon the earlier of (i) October 20, 2023, (ii) the date that Rule 144 or another similar exemption under the Securities Act is available to such stockholder for the sale of all of such stockholder’s shares without limitation during a three-month period, or (iii) upon the consummation of a merger or consolidation.

Anti-takeover effects of provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws and Delaware law

Some provisions of Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could make the following transactions more difficult: acquisition of us by means of a tender offer; acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish

 

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or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interests, including transactions that might result in a premium over the market price for our shares.

These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Delaware anti-takeover statute

We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits persons deemed “interested stockholders” from engaging in a “business combination” with a publicly-held Delaware corporation for three years following the date these persons become interested stockholders unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. Generally, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. The existence of this provision may have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by the board of directors, such as discouraging takeover attempts that might result in a premium over the market price of our common stock.

Undesignated preferred stock

The ability to authorize undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to institute a change of control of our company. These and other provisions may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.

Special stockholder meetings

Our amended and restated bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may only be called by our board of directors, Chief Executive Officer or, in the absence of a chief executive officer, our President.

Requirements for advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals

Our amended and restated bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors.

Elimination of stockholder action by written consent

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws eliminate the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting.

Classified board; election and removal of directors; filling vacancies

Our board of directors is divided into three classes. The directors in each class serve for a three-year term, one class being elected each year by our stockholders. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual

 

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meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, our stockholders holding a majority of the shares of common stock outstanding will be able to elect all of our directors. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides for the removal of any of our directors only for cause and requires a stockholder vote by the holders of at least a 66-2/3% of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock. Furthermore, any vacancy on our board of directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the size of the board, may only be filled by a resolution of the board of directors unless the board of directors determines that such vacancies will be filled by the stockholders. This system of electing and removing directors and filling vacancies may tend to discourage a third party from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us, because it generally makes it more difficult for stockholders to replace a majority of our directors.

Choice of forum

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws or as to which the Delaware General Corporation Law confers jurisdiction to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation also provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America are the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action against us or any of our directors, officers, employees or agents and arising under the Securities Act.

We believe these provisions may benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law and federal securities laws by chancellors and judges, as applicable, particularly experienced in resolving corporate disputes, efficient administration of cases on a more expedited schedule relative to other forums and protection against the burdens of multi-forum litigation. However, these provisions may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers. The choice of forum provision requiring that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or the federal district courts of the United States of America be the exclusive forum for certain actions would not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act.

Our exclusive forum provision will not relieve us of our duties to comply with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, and our stockholders are not be deemed to have waived our compliance with these laws, rules and regulations.

Although our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provisions described above, it is possible that a court could find that such a provision is inapplicable for a particular claim or action or that such provision is unenforceable.

Amendment of certificate of incorporation provisions

The amendment of any of the above provisions, except for the provision making it possible for our board of directors to issue undesignated preferred stock, would require approval by a stockholder vote by the holders of at least a 66-2/3% of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock.

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takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in our management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.

Nasdaq Global Select Market listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ALGS.”

Transfer agent and registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Co. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004.

 

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Shares eligible for future sale

Future sales of our common stock, including shares issued upon the exercise of outstanding options, in the public market after this offering, or the perception that those sales may occur, could cause the prevailing market price for our common stock to fall or impair our ability to raise equity capital in the future. As described below, only a limited number of shares of our common stock will be available for sale in the public market after consummation of this offering due to contractual and legal restrictions on resale described below.

Future sales of our common stock in the public market either before (to the extent permitted) or after restrictions lapse, or the perception that those sales may occur, could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock at such time and our ability to raise equity capital at a time and price we deem appropriate.

Based on the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2021, upon the consummation of this offering and assuming (1) no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of common stock and (2) no exercise of outstanding options after March 31, 2021, we will have outstanding an aggregate of 42,147,205 shares of common stock.

All of the shares of common stock to be sold in this offering, and any shares sold upon exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, will be freely tradable in the public market without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act, unless the shares are held by any of our “affiliates” as such term is defined in Rule 144 of the Securities Act. Certain of the remaining shares of common stock held by existing stockholders immediately prior to the consummation of this offering will be “restricted securities” as such term is defined in Rule 144. These restricted securities were issued and sold by us, or will be issued and sold by us, in private transactions and are eligible for public sale only if registered under the Securities Act or if they qualify for an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, including the exemptions provided by Rule 144 or Rule 701, which rules are summarized below.

Lock-up agreements

In connection with this offering, we, and our directors and executive officers and certain affiliated stockholders have agreed, subject to certain exceptions, with the underwriters not to dispose of or hedge any shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of common stock during the period from the date of the lock-up agreement continuing through the date 60 days after the date of this prospectus, except with the prior written consent of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Jefferies LLC, and Piper Sandler & Co. See the section titled “Underwriting” for additional information.

Following the lock-up period set forth above, and assuming that J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Jefferies LLC, and Piper Sandler & Co. do not release any parties from such lock-up agreement entered into in connection with this offering, all of the shares of our common stock that are restricted securities or are held by our affiliates as of the date of this prospectus will be eligible for sale in the public market in compliance with Rule 144 under the Securities Act.

Rule 144

In general, under Rule 144, as currently in effect, a person (or persons whose shares are required to be aggregated) who is not deemed to have been one of our “affiliates” for purposes of Rule 144 at any time during the three months preceding a sale, and who has beneficially owned restricted securities within the meaning of Rule 144 for at least six months, including the holding period of any prior owner other than one of our “affiliates,” is entitled to sell those shares in the public market (subject to the lock-up agreements referred to

 

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above, if applicable) without complying with the manner of sale, volume limitations or notice provisions of Rule 144, but subject to compliance with the public information requirements of Rule 144. If such a person has beneficially owned the shares proposed to be sold for at least one year, including the holding period of any prior owner other than “affiliates,” then such person is entitled to sell such shares in the public market without complying with any of the requirements of Rule 144 (subject to the lock-up agreement referred to above, if applicable). In general, under Rule 144, as currently in effect, our “affiliates,” as defined in Rule 144, who have beneficially owned the shares proposed to be sold for at least six months are entitled to sell in the public market, upon expiration of any applicable lock-up agreements and within any three-month period, a number of those shares of our common stock that does not exceed the greater of:

 

 

1% of the number of shares of common stock and non-voting common stock then outstanding, which will equal approximately 421,472 shares of common stock immediately after this offering (calculated as of March 31, 2021 on the basis of the assumptions (1)-(2) described above); or

 

 

the average weekly trading volume of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market during the four calendar weeks preceding the filing of a notice on Form 144 with respect to such sale.

Such sales under Rule 144 by our “affiliates” or persons selling shares on behalf of our “affiliates” are also subject to certain manner of sale provisions, notice requirements and to the availability of current public information about us.

Rule 701

Rule 701 generally provides that a stockholder who purchased shares of our common stock pursuant to a written compensatory benefit plan or contract and who is not deemed to have been one of our affiliates at any time during the preceding 90 days may sell such shares (to the extent such shares are not subject to a lock-up agreement) in reliance upon Rule 144 without complying with the current public information or holding period conditions of Rule 144. Rule 701 also provides that a stockholder who purchased shares of our common stock pursuant to a written compensatory benefit plan or contract and who is deemed to have been one of our affiliates during the preceding 90 days may sell such shares under Rule 144 without complying with the holding period condition of Rule 144 (subject to any applicable lock-up agreement).

Registration rights

Under our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement certain holders of our common stock and non-voting common stock, or their transferees (and subject to the lock-up agreements described above), are entitled to certain rights with respect to the registration of the offer and sale of those shares under the Securities Act. For a description of these registration rights, see “Description of capital stock—Registration rights.” If the offer and sale of these shares are registered, they will be freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act.

Stock plans

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act covering the shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan, our 2020 Incentive Award Plan and our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. Accordingly, shares registered under such registration statement are available for sale in the open market, subject to Rule 144 volume limitations and the lock-up agreements described above, if applicable.

 

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Material U.S. federal income tax consequences to non-U.S. holders

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to Non-U.S. Holders (as defined below) of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock issued pursuant to this offering, but does not purport to be a complete analysis of all potential tax effects. The effects of other U.S. federal tax laws, such as estate and gift tax laws, and any applicable state, local or non-U.S. tax laws are not discussed. This discussion is based on the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, judicial decisions, and published rulings and administrative pronouncements of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”), in each case in effect as of the date hereof.

These authorities may change or be subject to differing interpretations. Any such change or differing interpretation may be applied retroactively in a manner that could adversely affect a Non-U.S. Holder. We have not sought and will not seek any rulings from the IRS regarding the matters discussed below. There can be no assurance the IRS or a court will not take a contrary position to that discussed below regarding the tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock.

This discussion is limited to Non-U.S. Holders that hold our common stock as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a Non-U.S. Holder’s particular circumstances, including the impact of the Medicare contribution tax on net investment income or the alternative minimum tax. In addition, it does not address consequences relevant to Non-U.S. Holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

 

U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

 

persons holding our common stock as part of a straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction;

 

 

banks, insurance companies and other financial institutions;

 

 

brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

 

 

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

 

partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

 

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

 

persons deemed to sell our common stock under the constructive sale provisions of the Code;

 

 

tax-qualified retirement plans; and

 

 

“qualified foreign pension funds” as defined in Section 897(l)(2) of the Code and entities all of the interests of which are held by qualified foreign pension funds.

If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our common stock, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our common stock and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

THIS DISCUSSION IS NOT TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS

 

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ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR COMMON STOCK ARISING UNDER THE U.S. FEDERAL ESTATE OR GIFT TAX LAWS OR UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE INCOME TAX TREATY.

Definition of non-U.S. holder

For purposes of this discussion, a “Non-U.S. Holder” is any beneficial owner of our common stock that is neither a “U.S. person” nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A U.S. person is any person that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as any of the following:

 

 

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

 

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

 

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

 

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and all substantial decisions of which are subject to the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code), or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Distributions

As described in the section titled “Dividend policy,” we have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. However, if we do make distributions of cash or property on our common stock, such distributions will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. Amounts not treated as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes will constitute returns of capital and first be applied against and reduce a Non-U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in its common stock, but not below zero. Any excess will be treated as capital gain and will be treated as described below under “—Sale or other taxable disposition.”

Subject to the discussion below regarding effectively connected income, dividends paid to a Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% of the gross amount of the dividends (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty, provided the Non-U.S. Holder furnishes a valid IRS Form W-8BEN or IRS Form W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) certifying qualification for the lower treaty rate). A Non-U.S. Holder that does not timely furnish the required documentation, but that qualifies for a reduced treaty rate, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable tax treaties.

If dividends paid to a Non-U.S. Holder are effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), the Non-U.S. Holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the Non-U.S. Holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that the dividends are effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States. Any such effectively connected dividends will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively

 

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connected dividends, as adjusted for certain items. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

Sale or other taxable disposition

Subject to the discussion below regarding backup withholding, a Non-U.S. Holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock unless:

 

 

the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable);

 

 

the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met; or

 

 

our common stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest (“USRPI”), by reason of our status as a U.S. real property holding corporation (“USRPHC”), for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.

A Non-U.S. Holder described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on gain realized upon the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock, which may be offset by certain U.S.-source capital losses of the Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

With respect to the third bullet point above, we believe we currently are not, and do not anticipate becoming, a USRPHC. Because the determination of whether we are a USRPHC depends, however, on the fair market value of our USRPIs relative to the fair market value of our non-U.S. real property interests and our other business assets, there can be no assurance that we currently are not a USRPHC or will not become one in the future. Even if we are or were to become a USRPHC, gain arising from the sale or other taxable disposition by a Non-U.S. Holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax if our common stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market, and such Non-U.S. Holder owned, actually and constructively, 5% or less of our common stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the Non-U.S. Holder’s holding period.

Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

Information reporting and backup withholding

Payments of dividends on our common stock will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the Non-U.S. Holder certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any distributions on our common stock paid to the Non-U.S. Holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification

 

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described above or the Non-U.S. Holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of our common stock conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker that does not have certain enumerated relationships with the United States generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Additional withholding tax on payments made to foreign accounts

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such Sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”)) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on, or (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, our common stock paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertakes to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually reports certain information about such accounts, and withholds 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our common stock. While, beginning on January 1, 2019, withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock, proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued.

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our common stock.

 

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Underwriting

We are offering the shares of common stock described in this prospectus through a number of underwriters. J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Jefferies LLC and Piper Sandler & Co. are acting as joint book-running managers of the offering and as representatives of the underwriters. We have entered into an underwriting agreement with the underwriters. Subject to the terms and conditions of the underwriting agreement, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each underwriter has severally agreed to purchase, at the public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, the number of shares of common stock listed next to its name in the following table:

 

   
Name    Number of
shares
 

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC

                   

Jefferies LLC

  

Piper Sandler & Co.

  

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

  
  

 

 

 

Total

     4,000,000  

 

 

The underwriters are committed to purchase all the shares of common stock offered by us if they purchase any shares. The underwriting agreement also provides that if an underwriter defaults, the purchase commitments of non-defaulting underwriters may also be increased or the offering may be terminated.

The underwriters propose to offer the shares of common stock directly to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus and to certain dealers at that price less a concession not in excess of $                 per share. After the initial offering of the shares to the public, if all of the shares of common stock are not sold at the public offering price, the underwriters may change the offering price and the other selling terms. Sales of any shares made outside of the United States may be made by affiliates of the underwriters.

The underwriters have an option to buy up to 600,000 additional shares of common stock from us. The underwriters have 30 days from the date of this prospectus to exercise this option to purchase additional shares. If any shares are purchased with this option to purchase additional shares, the underwriters will purchase shares in approximately the same proportion as shown in the table above. If any additional shares of common stock are purchased, the underwriters will offer the additional shares on the same terms as those on which the shares are being offered.

The underwriting fee is equal to the public offering price per share of common stock less the amount paid by the underwriters to us per share of common stock. The underwriting fee is $                 per share. The following table shows the per share and total underwriting discounts and commissions to be paid to the underwriters assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.

 

     
      Without
option to
purchase
additional
shares
exercise
     With full
option to
purchase
additional
shares
exercise
 

Per Share

   $        $    

Total

   $                    $                

 

    

 

 

 

 

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We estimate that the total expenses of this offering, including registration, filing and listing fees, printing fees and legal and accounting expenses, but excluding the underwriting discounts and commissions, will be approximately $700,000. We have agreed to reimburse the underwriters for expenses of up to $40,000 relating to the clearance of this offering with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.

A prospectus in electronic format may be made available on the websites maintained by one or more underwriters, or selling group members, if any, participating in the offering. The underwriters may agree to allocate a number of shares to underwriters and selling group members for sale to their online brokerage account holders. Internet distributions will be allocated by the representatives to underwriters and selling group members that may make Internet distributions on the same basis as other allocations.

We have agreed that we will not (i) offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase, lend or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, or submit to, or file with, the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act relating to, any shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for any shares of our common stock, or publicly disclose the intention to make any offer, sale, pledge, loan, disposition or filing, or (ii) enter into any swap or other arrangement that transfers all or a portion of the economic consequences associated with the ownership of any shares of common stock or any such other securities (regardless of whether any of the transactions described in clause (i) or (ii) are to be settled by the delivery of shares of common stock or such other securities, in cash or otherwise), in each case without the prior written consent of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Jefferies LLC and Piper Sandler & Co. for a period of 60 days after the date of the final prospectus, other than the shares of our common stock to be sold in this offering.

The restrictions on our actions, as described above, do not apply to certain transactions, including (i) the issuance of shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable for shares of our common stock pursuant to the conversion or exchange of convertible or exchangeable securities or the exercise of warrants or options (including net exercise) or the settlement of RSUs (including net settlement), in each case outstanding on the date of the underwriting agreement and described in this prospectus; (ii) grants of stock options, stock awards, restricted stock, RSUs, or other equity awards and the issuance of shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for shares of our common stock (whether upon the exercise of stock options or otherwise) to our employees, officers, directors, advisors, or consultants pursuant to the terms of an equity compensation plan in effect as of the closing of this offering and described in this prospectus; or (iii) in connection with the issuance of up to 10% of the shares of common stock outstanding immediately following the closing of this offering in acquisitions or other strategic transactions, provided that, in each case, such recipients enter into a lock-up agreement with the underwriters.

Our directors and executive officers, and certain affiliated stockholders (such persons, the “lock-up parties”) have entered into lock-up agreements with the underwriters prior to the commencement of this offering pursuant to which each lock-up party, with limited exceptions, for a period of 60 days after the date of the final prospectus (such period, the “restricted period”), may not (and may not cause any of their direct or indirect affiliates to), without the prior written consent of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Jefferies LLC and Piper Sandler & Co., (1) offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase, lend or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of our common stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our common stock (including, without limitation, common stock or such other securities which may be deemed to be beneficially owned by such lock-up parties in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC and securities which may be issued upon exercise of a stock option or warrant (collectively with the common stock, the “lock-up securities”)), (2) enter into any hedging, swap or other agreement or transaction that transfers, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of the lock-up securities, whether any such transaction described in clause (1) or (2) above is to be settled by delivery of lock-up

 

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securities, in cash or otherwise, (3) make any demand for, or exercise any right with respect to, the registration of any lock-up securities, or (4) publicly disclose the intention to do any of the foregoing. Such persons or entities have further acknowledged that these undertakings preclude them from engaging in any hedging or other transactions or arrangements (including, without limitation, any short sale or the purchase or sale of, or entry into, any put or call option, or combination thereof, forward, swap or any other derivative transaction or instrument, however described or defined) designed or intended, or which could reasonably be expected to lead to or result in, a sale or disposition or transfer (by any person or entity, whether or not a signatory to such agreement) of any economic consequences of ownership, in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, of any lock-up securities, whether any such transaction or arrangement (or instrument provided for thereunder) would be settled by delivery of lock-up securities, in cash or otherwise.

The restrictions described in the immediately preceding paragraph and contained in the lock-up agreements between the underwriters and the lock-up parties do not apply, subject in certain cases to various conditions, to certain transactions, including (a) transfers or disposals of lock-up securities: (i) as bona fide gifts, or for bona fide estate planning purposes, (ii) by will, other testamentary document or intestacy, (iii) to any trust for the direct or indirect benefit of the lock-up party or any immediate family member, (iv) to a corporation, partnership, limited liability company or other entity of which the lock-up party and/or its immediate family members are, directly or indirectly, the legal and beneficial owner of all of the outstanding equity securities or similar interests, (v) to a nominee or custodian of a person or entity to whom a disposition or transfer would be permissible under clauses (i) through (iv), (vi) in the case of a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, trust or other business entity, (A) to another corporation, partnership, limited liability company, trust or other business entity that is an affiliate of the lock-up party, or to any investment fund or other entity controlling, controlled by, managing or managed by or under common control with the lock-up party or its affiliates or (B) as part of a distribution to affiliates, direct or indirect members, partners, stockholders or other equityholders of the lock-up party; (vii) by operation of law, (viii) to us from an employee or service provider upon death, disability or termination of employment of such employee or service provider, (ix) as part of a sale of lock-up securities acquired in open market transactions after the closing of this offering or from the underwriters in this offering; (x) as part of a sale of common stock made pursuant to a trading plan that complies with Rule 10b-5-1 under the Exchange Act that has been entered into by the lock-up party prior to the date of the lock-up agreement, (xi) to us in connection with the vesting, settlement or exercise of restricted stock units, options, warrants or other rights to purchase shares of our common stock (including “net” or “cashless” exercise), including for the payment of exercise price and tax and remittance payments, or (xii) pursuant to a bona fide third-party tender offer, merger, consolidation or other similar transaction approved by our board of directors and made to all stockholders involving a change in control, provided that if such transaction is not completed, all such lock-up securities would remain subject to the restrictions in the immediately preceding paragraph, provided in the case of any transfer, distribution or other disposition pursuant to clauses (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) and (ix) above, no filing by any party under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or other public announcement shall be required or shall be made voluntarily in connection with such transfer or distribution (other than a filing on a Form 5 made after the expiration of the restricted period referred to above or a filing on Schedule 13F or 13G that is required to be filed during the restricted period); (b) the exercise of options, the settlement of RSUs or other equity awards, or the exercise of warrants granted pursuant to plans described in this prospectus, provided that any lock-up securities received upon such exercise, vesting or settlement would be subject to restrictions similar to those in the immediately preceding paragraph; (c) the conversion of outstanding preferred stock, warrants to acquire preferred stock, or convertible securities into shares of our common stock or warrants to acquire shares of our common stock, provided that any common stock or warrant received upon such conversion would be subject to restrictions similar to those in the immediately preceding paragraph; and (d) the establishment by lock-up

 

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parties of trading or distribution plans under Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act, provided that any such plan does not provide for the transfer of lock-up securities during the restricted period.

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Jefferies LLC and Piper Sandler & Co., in their sole discretion, may release the securities subject to any of the lock-up agreements with the underwriters described above, in whole or in part at any time.

We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933.

Our common stock is listed on Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ALGS”.

In connection with this offering, the underwriters may engage in stabilizing transactions, which involves making bids for, purchasing and selling shares of common stock in the open market for the purpose of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock while this offering is in progress. These stabilizing transactions may include making short sales of common stock, which involves the sale by the underwriters of a greater number of shares of common stock than they are required to purchase in this offering, and purchasing shares of common stock on the open market to cover positions created by short sales. Short sales may be “covered” shorts, which are short positions in an amount not greater than the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares referred to above, or may be “naked” shorts, which are short positions in excess of that amount. The underwriters may close out any covered short position either by exercising their option to purchase additional shares, in whole or in part, or by purchasing shares in the open market. In making this determination, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market compared to the price at which the underwriters may purchase shares through the option to purchase additional shares. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the common stock in the open market that could adversely affect investors who purchase in this offering. To the extent that the underwriters create a naked short position, they will purchase shares in the open market to cover the position.

The underwriters have advised us that, pursuant to Regulation M of the Securities Act of 1933, they may also engage in other activities that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the common stock, including the imposition of penalty bids. This means that if the representatives of the underwriters purchase common stock in the open market in stabilizing transactions or to cover short sales, the representatives can require the underwriters that sold those shares as part of this offering to repay the underwriting discount received by them.

These activities may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of the common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock, and, as a result, the price of the common stock may be higher than the price that otherwise might exist in the open market. If the underwriters commence these activities, they may discontinue them at any time. The underwriters may carry out these transactions on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.

Other relationships

Certain of the underwriters and their affiliates have provided in the past to us and our affiliates and may provide from time to time in the future certain commercial banking, financial advisory, investment banking and other services for us and such affiliates in the ordinary course of their business, for which they have received and may continue to receive customary fees and commissions. In addition, from time to time, certain of the underwriters and their affiliates may effect transactions for their own account or the account of customers, and hold on behalf of themselves or their customers, long or short positions in our debt or equity securities or loans, and may do so in the future.

 

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Selling restrictions

Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the underwriters that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.

Notice to prospective investors in the European Economic Area

In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area, (each a “Relevant State”), no shares of common stock have been offered or will be offered pursuant to the offering to the public in that Relevant State prior to the publication of a prospectus in relation to the shares of common stock which has been approved by the competent authority in that Relevant State, all in accordance with the Prospectus Regulation, except that offers of shares of common stock may be made to the public in that Relevant State at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Regulation:

 

a)   to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Regulation;

 

b)   to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Regulation), subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representatives for any such offer; or

 

c)   in any other circumstances falling within Article 1(4) of the Prospectus Regulation,

provided that no such offer of shares of common stock shall require us or any underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Regulation or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the Prospectus Regulation and each person who initially acquires any shares of common stock or to whom any offer is made will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed to and with each of the representatives and us that it is a “qualified investor” within the meaning of Article 2(e) of the Prospectus Regulation.

In the case of any shares of common stock being offered to a financial intermediary as that term is used in Article 5 of the Prospectus Regulation, each such financial intermediary will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed that the shares of common stock acquired by it in the offer have not been acquired on a non-discretionary basis on behalf of, nor have they been acquired with a view to their offer or resale to, persons in circumstances which may give rise to an offer of any shares of common stock to the public other than their offer or resale in a Relevant State to qualified investors as so defined or in circumstances in which the prior consent of the representatives has been obtained to each such proposed offer or resale.

For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any shares of common stock in any Relevant State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the shares of common stock to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for the shares of common stock and the expression “Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129.

We have not authorized and do not authorize the making of any offer of shares of common stock

 

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any financial intermediary on their behalf, other than offers made by the underwriters with a view to the final placement of the shares of common stock in this document. Accordingly, no purchaser of the shares of common stock, other than the underwriters, is authorized to make any further offer of the shares on behalf of us or the underwriters.

Notice to prospective investors in the United Kingdom

In relation to the United Kingdom, no shares of common stock have been offered or will be offered pursuant to this offering to the public in the United Kingdom prior to the publication of a prospectus in relation to the shares of common stock that either (i) has been approved by the Financial Conduct Authority, or (ii) is to be treated as if it had been approved by the Financial Conduct Authority in accordance with the transitional provision in Regulation 74 of the Prospectus (Amendment etc.) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019, except that offers of shares may be made to the public in the United Kingdom at any time under the following exemptions under the UK Prospectus Regulation:

 

 

to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined in Article 2 of the UK Prospectus Regulation;

 

 

to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in Article 2 of the UK Prospectus Regulation; or

 

 

in any other circumstances falling within Section 86 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (“FSMA”),

provided that no such offer of shares of common stock shall require us or any representative to publish a prospectus pursuant to Section 85 of the FSMA or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the UK Prospectus Regulation.

For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any shares of common stock in any relevant state means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any shares to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for any shares, and the expression “UK Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 as it forms part of domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018.

We have not authorized and do not authorize the making of any offer of shares of common stock through any financial intermediary on their behalf, other than offers made by the underwriters with a view to the final placement of the shares of common stock as contemplated in this prospectus. Accordingly, no purchaser of the shares of common stock, other than the underwriters, is authorized to make any further offer of the shares on behalf of us or the underwriters.

In addition, in the United Kingdom, this document is being distributed only to, and is directed only at, and any offer subsequently made may only be directed at persons who are “qualified investors” (as defined in Article 2 of the UK Prospectus Regulation) (i) who have professional experience in matters relating to investments falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended, or the Order, and/or (ii) who are high net worth companies (or persons to whom it may otherwise be lawfully communicated) falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order (all such persons together being referred to as “relevant persons”) or otherwise in circumstances which have not resulted and will not result in an offer to the public of the shares in the United Kingdom within the meaning of the FSMA.

Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a relevant person should not act or rely on the information included in this document or use it as basis for taking any action. In the United Kingdom any investment or investment activity that this document relates to may be made or taken exclusively by relevant persons.

 

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Notice to prospective investors in Switzerland

The shares of common stock may not be publicly offered in Switzerland and will not be listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange (the “SIX”) or on any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. This document does not constitute a prospectus within the meaning of, and has been prepared without regard to the disclosure standards for issuance prospectuses under art. 652a or art. 1156 of the Swiss Code of Obligations or the disclosure standards for listing prospectuses under art. 27 ff. of the SIX Listing Rules or the listing rules of any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. Neither this document nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the shares or the offering may be publicly distributed or otherwise made publicly available in Switzerland.

Neither this document nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the offering, the Company, the shares have been or will be filed with or approved by any Swiss regulatory authority. In particular, this document will not be filed with, and the offer of shares will not be supervised by, the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority FINMA (the “FINMA”), and the offer of shares of common stock has not been and will not be authorized under the Swiss Federal Act on Collective Investment Schemes (the “CISA”). The investor protection afforded to acquirers of interests in collective investment schemes under the CISA does not extend to acquirers of shares.

Notice to prospective investors in France

This prospectus (including any amendment, supplement or replacement thereto) is not being distributed in the context of a public offering in France within the meaning of Article L. 411-1 of the French Monetary and Financial Code (Code monétaire et financier). This prospectus has not been and will not be submitted to the French Autorité des marchés financiers (the “AMF”) for approval in France and accordingly may not and will not be distributed to the public in France.

Pursuant to Article 211-3 of the AMF General Regulation, French residents are hereby informed that:

 

1.   the transaction does not require a prospectus to be submitted for approval to the AMF;

 

2.   persons or entities referred to in Point 2°, Section II of Article L. 411-2 of the Monetary and Financial Code may take part in the transaction solely for their own account, as provided in Articles D. 411-1, D. 734-1, D. 744-1, D. 754-1 and D. 764-1 of the Monetary and Financial Code; and

 

3.   the financial instruments thus acquired cannot be distributed directly or indirectly to the public otherwise than in accordance with Articles L. 411-1, L. 411-2, L. 412-1 and L. 621-8 to L. 621-8-3 of the Monetary and Financial Code.

This prospectus is not to be further distributed or reproduced (in whole or in part) in France by the recipients of this prospectus. This prospectus has been distributed on the understanding that such recipients will only participate in the issue or sale of our common stock for their own account and undertake not to transfer, directly or indirectly, our common stock to the public in France, other than in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations and in particular with Articles L. 411-1 and L. 411-2 of the French Monetary and Financial Code.

Notice to prospective investors in Germany

Each person who is in possession of this prospectus is aware of the fact that no German securities prospectus (wertpapierprospekt) within the meaning of the German Securities Prospectus Act (Wertpapierprospektgesetz, or the Act) of the Federal Republic of Germany has been or will be published with respect to the shares of our

 

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common stock. In particular, each underwriter has represented that it has not engaged and has agreed that it will not engage in a public offering in the Federal Republic of Germany within the meaning of the Act with respect to any of the shares of our common stock otherwise than in accordance with the Act and all other applicable legal and regulatory requirements

Notice to prospective investors in Canada

The shares of common stock may be sold only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the shares of common stock must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.

Notice to prospective investors in Australia

This prospectus:

 

 

does not constitute a disclosure document or a prospectus under Chapter 6D.2 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (the “Corporations Act”);

 

 

has not been, and will not be, lodged with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (“ASIC”), as a disclosure document for the purposes of the Corporations Act and does not purport to include the information required of a disclosure document for the purposes of the Corporations Act; and

 

 

may only be provided in Australia to select investors who are able to demonstrate that they fall within one or more of the categories of investors, available under section 708 of the Corporations Act (“Exempt Investors”).

The shares of common stock may not be directly or indirectly offered for subscription or purchased or sold, and no invitations to subscribe for or buy the shares may be issued, and no draft or definitive offering memorandum, advertisement or other offering material relating to any shares may be distributed in Australia, except where disclosure to investors is not required under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act or is otherwise in compliance with all applicable Australian laws and regulations. By submitting an application for the shares, you represent and warrant to us that you are an Exempt Investor.

As any offer of shares of common stock under this document will be made without disclosure in Australia under Chapter 6D.2 of the Corporations Act, the offer of those securities for resale in Australia within 12 months may, under section 707 of the Corporations Act, require disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D.2 if none of the exemptions in section 708 applies to that resale. By applying for the shares of common stock, you undertake to

 

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us that you will not, for a period of 12 months from the date of issue of the shares of common stock, offer, transfer, assign or otherwise alienate those shares of common stock to investors in Australia except in circumstances where disclosure to investors is not required under Chapter 6D.2 of the Corporations Act or where a compliant disclosure document is prepared and lodged with ASIC.

Notice to prospective investors in New Zealand

This prospectus has not been registered, filed with or approved by any New Zealand regulatory authority under the Financial Markets Conduct Act 2013 (the “FMC Act”). The shares of common stock may only be offered or sold in New Zealand (or allotted with a view to being offered for sale in New Zealand) to a person who:

 

 

is an investment business within the meaning of clause 37 of Schedule 1 of the FMC Act;

 

meets the investment activity criteria specified in clause 38 of Schedule 1 of the FMC Act;

 

is large within the meaning of clause 39 of Schedule 1 of the FMC Act;

 

is a government agency within the meaning of clause 40 of Schedule 1 of the FMC Act; or

 

is an eligible investor within the meaning of clause 41 of Schedule 1 of the FMC Act.

Notice to prospective investors in Japan

The shares of common stock have not been and will not be registered pursuant to Article 4, Paragraph 1 of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act. Accordingly, none of the shares nor any interest therein may be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the benefit of, any “resident” of Japan (which term as used herein means any person resident in Japan, including any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan), or to others for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the benefit of a resident of Japan, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of, and otherwise in compliance with, the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act and any other applicable laws, regulations and ministerial guidelines of Japan in effect at the relevant time.

Notice to prospective investors in Hong Kong

The shares of common stock have not been offered or sold and will not be offered or sold in Hong Kong, by means of any document, other than (a) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (the “SFO”) of Hong Kong and any rules made thereunder; or (b) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong) (the “CO”) or which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the CO. No advertisement, invitation or document relating to the shares of common stock has been or may be issued or has been or may be in the possession of any person for the purposes of issue, whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere, which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to shares which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the SFO and any rules made thereunder.

Notice to prospective investors in Singapore

Singapore SFA Product Classification — In connection with Section 309B of the SFA and the CMP Regulations 2018, unless otherwise specified before an offer of Notes, we have determined, and hereby notifies all relevant persons (as defined in Section 309A(1) of the SFA), that the Notes are ‘‘prescribed capital markets products’’ (as defined in the CMP Regulations 2018) and Excluded Investment Products (as defined in MAS Notice SFA 04-N12:

 

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Notice on the Sale of Investment Products and MAS Notice FAA-N16: Notice on Recommendations on Investment Products).

Each representative has acknowledged that this prospectus has not been registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, each representative has represented and agreed that it has not offered or sold any shares of common stock or caused the shares of common stock to be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase and will not offer or sell any shares of common stock or cause the shares of common stock to be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, and has not circulated or distributed, nor will it circulate or distribute, this prospectus or any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the shares, whether directly or indirectly, to any person in Singapore other than:

(a) to an institutional investor (as defined in Section 4A of the Securities and Futures Act (Chapter 289) of Singapore, as modified or amended from time to time (the “SFA”)) pursuant to Section 274 of the SFA; (b) to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA) pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA; or

(c) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA.

Where the shares are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is:

(a) a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or

(b) a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an accredited investor, securities or securities-based derivatives contracts (each term as defined in Section 2(1) of the SFA) of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within six months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the shares pursuant to an offer made under Section 275 of the SFA except:

i. to an institutional investor or to a relevant person, or to any person arising from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) or Section 276(4)(i)(B) of the SFA;

ii. where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer;

iii. where the transfer is by operation of law;

iv. as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA; or

v. as specified in Regulation 37A of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Securities and Securities-based Derivatives Contracts) Regulations 2018.

Notice to prospective investors in China

This prospectus will not be circulated or distributed in the PRC and the shares of common stock will not be offered or sold, and will not be offered or sold to any person for re-offering or resale directly or indirectly to any residents of the PRC except pursuant to any applicable laws and regulations of the PRC. Neither this prospectus nor any advertisement or other offering material may be distributed or published in the PRC, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

 

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Notice to prospective investors in Korea

The shares of common stock have not been and will not be registered under the Financial Investments Services and Capital Markets Act of Korea and the decrees and regulations thereunder (the “FSCMA”), and the shares of common stock have been and will be offered in Korea as a private placement under the FSCMA. None of the shares of common stock may be offered, sold or delivered directly or indirectly, or offered or sold to any person for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Korea or to any resident of Korea except pursuant to the applicable laws and regulations of Korea, including the FSCMA and the Foreign Exchange Transaction Law of Korea and the decrees and regulations thereunder (the “FETL”). The shares of common stock have not been listed on any of securities exchanges in the world including, without limitation, the Korea Exchange in Korea.

Furthermore, the purchaser of the shares of common stock shall comply with all applicable regulatory requirements (including but not limited to requirements under the FETL) in connection with the purchase of the shares. By the purchase of the shares of common stock, the relevant holder thereof will be deemed to represent and warrant that if it is in Korea or is a resident of Korea, it purchased the shares of common stock pursuant to the applicable laws and regulations of Korea.

Notice to prospective investors in Taiwan

The shares of common stock have not been and will not be registered with the Financial Supervisory Commission of Taiwan pursuant to relevant securities laws and regulations and may not be sold, issued or offered within Taiwan through a public offering or in circumstances which constitutes an offer within the meaning of the Securities and Exchange Act of Taiwan that requires a registration or approval of the Financial Supervisory Commission of Taiwan. No person or entity in Taiwan has been authorized to offer, sell, give advice regarding or otherwise intermediate the offering and sale of the shares in Taiwan.

Notice to prospective investors in Saudi Arabia

This document may not be distributed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia except to such persons as are permitted under the Offers of Securities Regulations as issued by the board of the Saudi Arabian Capital Market Authority (the “CMA”) pursuant to resolution number 2-11-2004 dated 4 October 2004 as amended by resolution number 1-28-2008, as amended (the “CMA Regulations”). The CMA does not make any representation as to the accuracy or completeness of this document and expressly disclaims any liability whatsoever for any loss arising from, or incurred in reliance upon, any part of this document. Prospective purchasers of the securities offered hereby should conduct their own due diligence on the accuracy of the information relating to the securities. If you do not understand the contents of this document, you should consult an authorized financial adviser.

Notice to prospective investors in the Dubai International Financial Centre (“DIFC”)

This document relates to an Exempt Offer in accordance with the Markets Rules 2012 of the Dubai Financial Services Authority (the “DFSA”). This document is intended for distribution only to persons of a type specified in the Markets Rules 2012 of the DFSA. It must not be delivered to, or relied on by, any other person. The DFSA has no responsibility for reviewing or verifying any documents in connection with Exempt Offers. The DFSA has not approved this prospectus supplement nor taken steps to verify the information set forth herein and has no responsibility for this document. The shares of common stock to which this document relates may be illiquid and/or subject to restrictions on their resale. Prospective purchasers of the shares of common stock offered should conduct their own due diligence on the securities. If you do not understand the contents of this document, you should consult an authorized financial advisor.

 

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In relation to its use in the DIFC, this document is strictly private and confidential and is being distributed to a limited number of investors and must not be provided to any person other than the original recipient, and may not be reproduced or used for any other purpose. The interests in the securities may not be offered or sold directly or indirectly to the public in the DIFC.

Notice to prospective investors in the United Arab Emirates

The shares of common stock have not been, and are not being, publicly offered, sold, promoted or advertised in the United Arab Emirates (including the Dubai International Financial Centre) other than in compliance with the laws of the United Arab Emirates (and the Dubai International Financial Centre) governing the issue, offering and sale of securities. Further, this prospectus does not constitute a public offer of securities in the United Arab Emirates (including the Dubai International Financial Centre) and is not intended to be a public offer. This prospectus has not been approved by or filed with the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates, the Securities and Commodities Authority or the Dubai Financial Services Authority.

Notice to prospective investors in Bermuda

Shares of common stock may be offered or sold in Bermuda only in compliance with the provisions of the Investment Business Act of 2003 of Bermuda which regulates the sale of securities in Bermuda. Additionally, non-Bermudian persons (including companies) may not carry on or engage in any trade or business in Bermuda unless such persons are permitted to do so under applicable Bermuda legislation.

Notice to prospective investors in the British Virgin Islands

The shares of common stock are not being, and may not be offered to the public or to any person in the British Virgin Islands for purchase or subscription by or on behalf of us. The shares of common stock may be offered to companies incorporated under the BVI Business Companies Act, 2004 (British Virgin Islands),“BVI Companies”), but only where the offer will be made to, and received by, the relevant BVI Company entirely outside of the British Virgin Islands.

Notice to prospective investors in South Africa

Due to restrictions under the securities laws of South Africa, no “offer to the public” (as such term is defined in the South African Companies Act, No. 71 of 2008 (as amended or re-enacted) (the “South African Companies Act”)) is being made in connection with the issue of the shares in South Africa. Accordingly, this document does not, nor is it intended to, constitute a “registered prospectus” (as that term is defined in the South African Companies Act) prepared and registered under the South African Companies Act and has not been approved by, and/or filed with, the South African Companies and Intellectual Property Commission or any other regulatory authority in South Africa. The shares are not offered, and the offer shall not be transferred, sold, renounced or delivered, in South Africa or to a person with an address in South Africa, unless one or other of the following exemptions stipulated in section 96 (1) applies:

 

Section 96 (1) (a)

  

the offer, transfer, sale, renunciation or delivery is to:

 

i.    persons whose ordinary business, or part of whose ordinary business, is to deal in securities, as principal or agent;

 

ii.   the South African Public Investment Corporation;

 

iii.   persons or entities regulated by the Reserve Bank of South Africa;

 

iv.   authorised financial service providers under South African law;

 

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v.   financial institutions recognised as such under South African law;

 

vi.   a wholly-owned subsidiary of any person or entity contemplated in (c), (d) or (e), acting as agent in the capacity of an authorised portfolio manager for a pension fund, or as manager for a collective investment scheme (in each case duly registered as such under South African law); or

 

vii.  any combination of the person in (i) to (vi); or

 

Section 96 (1) (b)

   the total contemplated acquisition cost of the securities, for any single addressee acting as principal is equal to or greater than ZAR1,000,000 or such higher amount as may be promulgated by notice in the Government Gazette of South Africa pursuant to section 96(2)(a) of the South African Companies Act.

Information made available in this prospectus should not be considered as “advice” as defined in the South African Financial Advisory and Intermediary Services Act, 2002.

Notice to prospective investors in Israel

This document does not constitute a prospectus under the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, and has not been filed with or approved by the Israel Securities Authority. In Israel, this prospectus is being distributed only to, and is directed only at, qualified investors listed in the first addendum, or the Addendum, to the Israeli Securities Law. Qualified investors may be required to submit written confirmation that they fall within the scope of the Addendum.

 

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Legal matters

The validity of the issuance of our common stock offered in this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, Menlo Park, California. Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, Menlo Park, California is acting as counsel for the underwriters in connection with this offering. Latham & Watkins LLP and certain attorneys and investment funds affiliated with the firm own an aggregate of 14,294 shares of common stock of the Company.

Experts

The consolidated financial statements of Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. appearing in Aligos Therapeutics, Inc.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

Where you can find more information

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-1 under the Securities Act with respect to the shares of common stock offered hereby. This prospectus, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement or the exhibits and schedules filed therewith. For further information with respect to Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. and the common stock offered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed therewith or incorporated by reference therein. Statements contained in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus regarding the contents of any contract or any other document that is filed or incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement are not necessarily complete, and each such statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the full text of such contract or other document filed or incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement. The SEC also maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. The address is www.sec.gov.

We are subject to the information and periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Such periodic reports, proxy statements and other information are available at the website of the SEC referred to above. We maintain a website at www.aligos.com. You may access our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act with the SEC free of charge at our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The reference to our website address does not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained on our website, and you should not consider the contents of our website in making an investment decision with respect to our common stock.

Incorporation of certain information by reference

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus. We

 

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incorporate by reference into this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (Commission File No. 001-39617):

 

 

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 23, 2021;

 

 

The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 27, 2021;

 

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on May 10, 2021;

 

 

Our Current Reports on Form  8-K filed with the SEC on April 27, 2021 (as amended by our Form 8-K/A filed on June 24, 2021) and June 24, 2021; and

 

 

The description of our common stock which is registered under Section  12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed on October 13, 2020, including any amendment or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

Notwithstanding the statements in the preceding paragraphs, no document, report or exhibit (or portion of any of the foregoing) or any other information that we have “furnished” to the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act shall be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including exhibits to these documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Aligos Therapeutics, Inc., One Corporate Drive, 2nd Floor, South San Francisco, CA 94080.

You also may access these filings on our website at www.aligos.com. We do not incorporate the information on our website into this prospectus or any supplement to this prospectus and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or any supplement to this prospectus (other than those filings with the SEC that we specifically incorporate by reference into this prospectus or any supplement to this prospectus).

Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus will be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies, supersedes or replaces such statement.

 

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4,000,000 shares

 

 

 

LOGO

Common stock

 

 

Prospectus dated                 , 2021


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PART II

Information not required in prospectus

Item 13. Other expenses of issuance and distribution.

The following table sets forth the costs and expenses, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by the registrant in connection with the sale of common stock being registered. All amounts are estimates except for the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) registration fee and the FINRA filing fee.

 

   
Item    Amount paid
or to be paid
 

SEC registration fee

   $ 13,445  

FINRA filing fee

     18,985  

Printing and engraving expenses

     100,000  

Legal fees and expenses

     350,000  

Accounting fees and expenses

     200,000  

Transfer agent fees and expenses

     10,000  

Miscellaneous expenses

     7,570  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ 700,000  

 

 

Item 14. Indemnification of directors and officers.

As permitted by Section 102 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, we have adopted provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws that limit or eliminate the personal liability of our directors for a breach of their fiduciary duty of care as a director. The duty of care generally requires that, when acting on behalf of the corporation, directors exercise an informed business judgment based on all material information reasonably available to them. Consequently, a director will not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability for:

 

 

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

any act related to unlawful stock repurchases, redemptions or other distributions or payment of dividends; or

 

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

These limitations of liability do not affect the availability of equitable remedies such as injunctive relief or rescission. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation also authorizes us to indemnify our officers, directors and other agents to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law.

As permitted by Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated bylaws provide that:

 

 

we shall indemnify our directors and officers, and may indemnify our employees and agents to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to limited exceptions;

 

 

we shall advance expenses to our directors and officers and may advance expenses to our employees and agents in connection with a legal proceeding to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to limited exceptions; and

 

 

the rights provided in our amended and restated bylaws are not exclusive.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws provide for the indemnification provisions described above and elsewhere herein. We have entered into separate


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indemnification agreements with our directors and officers which may be broader than the specific indemnification provisions contained in the Delaware General Corporation Law. These indemnification agreements generally require us, among other things, to indemnify our officers and directors against liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers, other than liabilities arising from willful misconduct. These indemnification agreements also generally require us to advance any expenses incurred by the directors or officers as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. In addition, we have purchased a policy of directors’ and officers’ liability insurance that insures our directors and officers against the cost of defense, settlement or payment of a judgment in some circumstances. These indemnification provisions and the indemnification agreements may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of our officers and directors for liabilities, including reimbursement of expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act).

The form of Underwriting Agreement, attached as Exhibit 1.1 hereto, provides for indemnification by the underwriters of us and our officers who sign this Registration Statement and directors for specified liabilities, including matters arising under the Securities Act.

Item 15. Recent sales of unregistered securities.

The following list sets forth information as to all securities we have sold since February 5, 2018, which were not registered under the Securities Act.

 

1.   In March and July 2018, we issued an aggregate of 2,011,864 shares of restricted common stock pursuant to restricted stock purchase agreements to our founders, early employees and academic collaborators at a price of $0.001033865384 per share.

 

2.   In April and June 2018, we issued convertible promissory notes in an aggregate principal amount of $5 million and warrants to purchase shares of capital stock to 19 accredited investors.

 

3.   In June 2018, we issued a convertible promissory note in a principal amount of $600,000 to one accredited investor.

 

4.   In August and September 2018, we issued an aggregate of 10,806,432 shares of Series A convertible preferred stock to 27 accredited investors at a price per share of either (i) $9.32 in cash or (ii) with respect 612,975 shares of Series A preferred stock issued upon conversion of convertible promissory notes issued by us, $5.7 million in cancellation of indebtedness, for a total amount raised (including the cancellation of indebtedness and accrued interest thereon) of $100.7 million.

 

5.   In December 2019, we issued an aggregate of 8,344,034 shares of Series B-1 convertible preferred stock to 38 accredited investors at a price per share of $10.1869 for aggregate proceeds to us of $85 million.

 

6.   In October 2020, we issued an aggregate of 3,569,630 shares of Series B-2 convertible preferred stock to 38 accredited investors at a price per share of $11.20563 for aggregate proceeds to us of $40 million.

 

7.   Prior to filing our registration statement on Form S-8 in October 2020, we granted stock options and stock awards to employees, directors and consultants covering an aggregate of 4,776,930 shares of common stock, at a weighted-average exercise price of approximately $2.09 per share. Of these, options covering an aggregate of 3,219 shares were cancelled without being exercised.

 

8.   Prior to filing our registration statement on Form S-8 in October 2020, we sold an aggregate of 2,125,374 shares of common stock to employees, directors and consultants for cash consideration in the aggregate amount of approximately $0.7 million pursuant to stock options and stock awards.

We claimed exemption from registration under the Securities Act for the sale and issuance of securities in the transactions described in paragraphs (1) through (6) by virtue of Section 4(a)(2) and/or Regulation D


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promulgated thereunder as transactions not involving any public offering. All of the purchasers of unregistered securities for which we relied on Section 4(a)(2) and/or Regulation D represented that they were accredited investors as defined under the Securities Act. We claimed such exemption on the basis that (a) the purchasers in each case represented that they intended to acquire the securities for investment only and not with a view to the distribution thereof and that they either received adequate information about the registrant or had access, through employment or other relationships, to such information and (b) appropriate legends were affixed to the stock certificates issued in such transactions.

We claimed exemption from registration under the Securities Act for the sales and issuances of securities in the transactions described in paragraphs (7) and (8) above under Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act in that such sales and issuances did not involve a public offering or under Rule 701 promulgated under the Securities Act, in that they were offered and sold either pursuant to written compensatory plans or pursuant to a written contract relating to compensation, as provided by Rule 701.

Item 16. Exhibits and financial statement schedules.

(a) Exhibits.

 

       
         Incorporated by reference     Filed
herewith
 
Exhibit
number
  Exhibit description    Form      Date      Number         
1.1   Form of Underwriting Agreement.              x  
3.1   Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.      8-K        10/20/2020        3.1    
3.2   Amended and Restated Bylaws.      8-K        10/20/2020        3.2    
4.1   Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2.           
4.2   Form of Common Stock Certificate.      S-1/A        10/9/2020        4.2    
5.1   Opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP.              x  
10.1(a)†   Aligos Therapeutics/Emory University License Agreement by and between Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. and Emory University, dated June 26, 2018.      S-1        9/25/2020        10.1 (a)   
10.1(b)†   First Amendment to License Agreement by and between Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. and Emory University, dated June 18, 2020.      S-1        9/25/2020        10.1 (b)   
10.2(a)†   License Agreement by and between Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. and Luxna Biotech Co., Ltd., dated December 19, 2018.      S-1        9/25/2020        10.2 (a)   
10.2(b)†   Amendment to License Agreement by and between Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. and Luxna Biotech Co., Ltd., dated April 8, 2020.      S-1        9/25/2020        10.2 (b)   
10.3   Lease between Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. and Britannia Biotech Gateway Limited Partnership, dated June 21, 2018.      S-1        9/25/2020        10.3    
10.4   Amended and Restated Investors’ Rights Agreement dated October 9, 2020.      S-1/A        10/9/2020        10.4    
10.5(a)#   2018 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended.      S-1        9/25/2020        10.5 (a)   


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         Incorporated by reference     Filed
herewith
 
Exhibit
number
  Exhibit description    Form      Date      Number         
10.5(b)#   Form of Stock Option Grant Notice and Stock Option Agreement under 2018 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended.      S-1        9/25/2020        10.5 (b)   
10.5(c)#   Form of Early Exercise Stock Option Grant Notice and Stock Option Agreement under 2018 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended.      S-1        9/25/2020        10.5 (c)   
10.5(d)#   Form of International Stock Option Grant Notice and Stock Option Agreement under 2018 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended.      S-1        9/25/2020        10.5 (d)   
10.6(a)#   2020 Incentive Award Plan.      S-1/A        10/9/2020        10.6 (a)   
10.6(b)#   Form of Stock Option Grant Notice and Stock Option Agreement under the 2020 Incentive Award Plan.      S-1/A        10/9/2020        10.6 (b)   
10.6(c)#   Form of Restricted Stock Award Agreement under the 2020 Incentive Award Plan.      S-1/A        10/9/2020        10.6 (c)   
10.6(d)#   Form of Restricted Stock Unit Award Grant Notice under the 2020 Incentive Award Plan.      S-1/A        10/9/2020        10.6 (d)   
10.7#   2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.      S-1/A        10/9/2020        10.7    
10.8#   Amended and Restated Employment Agreement, effective as of dated February  10, 2021, by and between the Company and Lawrence M. Blatt, Ph.D.      10-Q        05/10/2021        10.2    
10.9#   Amended and Restated Employment Agreement, dated effective as of February  10, 2021, by and between the Company and Leonid Beigelman, Ph.D.      10-Q        05/10/2021        10.1    
10.10#   Confirmatory Employment Letter by and between Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. and Lucinda Quan, J.D., dated May 14, 2019.      S-1/A        10/9/2020        10.10    
10.11#   Employment Agreement by and between Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. and Julian Symons, D.Phil., dated May 14, 2019.      10-Q        5/10/2021        10.3    
10.12#   Non-Employee Director Compensation Program.      S-1/A        10/9/2020        10.11    
10.13#   Form of Change in Control and Severance Agreement.      10-Q        5/10/2021        10.4    
10.14   Form of Indemnification Agreement for directors and officers.      S-1/A        10/9/2020        10.12    
10.15   Consulting Agreement by and between Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. and Kathy Glaub, dated June 17, 2021.              x  
21.1   Subsidiaries of Registrant.      S-1        9/25/2020        21.1    
23.1   Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.              x  
23.2   Consent of Latham & Watkins LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).              x  
24.1   Power of Attorney. Reference is made to the signature page to the Registration Statement.              x  

 

 


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  Portions of the exhibit, marked by brackets, have been omitted because the omitted information (i) is not material and (ii) would likely cause competitive harm if publicly disclosed.

 

#   Indicates management contract or compensatory plan.

(b) Financial Statement Schedules. Schedules not listed above have been omitted because the information required to be set forth therein is not applicable or is shown in the financial statements or notes thereto.

Item 17. Undertakings.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act, and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer, or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question of whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that:

 

1.   For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this Registration Statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this Registration Statement as of the time it was declared effective.

 

2.   For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes to provide to the underwriters at the closing specified in the underwriting agreement certificates in such denominations and registered in such names as required by the underwriters to permit prompt delivery to each purchaser.


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Signatures

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement on Form S-1 to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in South San Francisco, California on June 28, 2021.

 

Aligos Therapeutics, Inc.

By:

 

/s/ Lawrence M. Blatt

 

Lawrence M. Blatt, Ph.D.

Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors

Power of attorney

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Lawrence M. Blatt, Ph.D., Lesley Ann Calhoun and Lucinda Quan, J.D., and each of them acting individually, as his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, each with full power of substitution, for him in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this Registration Statement, including post-effective amendments or any abbreviated registration statement and any amendments thereto filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) increasing the number of securities for which registration is sought, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the SEC, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of each to act alone, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or his, her or their substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

     
Signature    Title   Date

/s/ Lawrence M. Blatt

Lawrence M. Blatt, Ph.D.

  

Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors

(Principal Executive Officer)

  June 28, 2021

/s/ Lesley Ann Calhoun

Lesley Ann Calhoun

  

Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

  June 28, 2021

/s/ Leonid Beigelman

Leonid Beigelman, Ph.D.

  

President and Director

  June 28, 2021

/s/ K. Peter Hirth

K. Peter Hirth, Ph.D.

  

Director

  June 28, 2021

/s/ Jack B. Nielsen

Jack B. Nielsen

  

Director

  June 28, 2021

/s/ Carole Nuechterlein

Carole Nuechterlein

  

Director

  June 28, 2021


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Signature    Title   Date

/s/ Thomas Woiwode

Thomas Woiwode, Ph.D.

  

Director

  June 28, 2021

/s/ James Scopa

James Scopa

  

Director

  June 28, 2021

 

EX-1.1

Exhibit 1.1

UNDERWRITING AGREEMENT

Aligos Therapeutics, Inc.

[•] Shares of Common Stock

                     , 2021

J.P. MORGAN SECURITIES LLC

JEFFERIES LLC

PIPER SANDLER & CO.

As Representatives of the

several Underwriters listed

in Schedule 1 hereto

c/o J.P. Morgan Securities LLC

383 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10179

c/o Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

c/o Piper Sandler & Co.

800 Nicollet Mall, Suite 800

Minneapolis, Minnesota 55402

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Aligos Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), proposes to issue and sell to the several underwriters listed in Schedule 1 hereto (the “Underwriters”), for whom you are acting as representatives (the “Representatives”), an aggregate of [•] shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Common Stock”), of the Company (the “Underwritten Shares”) and, at the option of the Underwriters, up to an additional [•] shares of Common Stock of the Company (the “Option Shares”). The Underwritten Shares and the Option Shares are herein referred to as the “Shares.” The shares of Common Stock of the Company to be outstanding after giving effect to the sale of the Shares are referred to herein as the “Stock.”

The Company hereby confirms its agreement with the several Underwriters concerning the purchase and sale of the Shares, as follows:

1. Registration Statement. The Company has prepared and filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), a registration statement (File No. 333-[•]), including a prospectus, relating to the Shares. Such


registration statement, as amended at the time it became effective, including the information, if any, deemed pursuant to Rule 430A, 430B or 430C under the Securities Act to be part of the registration statement at the time of its effectiveness (“Rule 430 Information”), is referred to herein as the “Registration Statement”; and as used herein, the term “Preliminary Prospectus” means each prospectus included in such registration statement (and any amendments thereto) before effectiveness, any prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(a) under the Securities Act and the prospectus included in the Registration Statement at the time of its effectiveness that omits Rule 430 Information, and the term “Prospectus” means the prospectus in the form first used (or made available upon request of purchasers pursuant to Rule 173 under the Securities Act) in connection with confirmation of sales of the Shares. If the Company has filed an abbreviated registration statement pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act (the “Rule 462 Registration Statement”), then any reference herein to the term “Registration Statement” shall be deemed to include such Rule 462 Registration Statement. Any reference in this underwriting agreement (this “Agreement”) to the Registration Statement, any Preliminary Prospectus or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-1 under the Securities Act, as of the effective date of the Registration Statement or the date of such Preliminary Prospectus or the Prospectus, as the case may be. Capitalized terms used but not defined herein shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

At or prior to the Applicable Time (as defined below), the Company had prepared the following information (collectively with the pricing information set forth on Annex A, the “Pricing Disclosure Package”): a Preliminary Prospectus dated [•], 2021 and each “free-writing prospectus” (as defined pursuant to Rule 405 under the Securities Act) listed on Annex A hereto.

“Applicable Time” means [4:30] P.M., New York City time, on [•], 2021.

2. Purchase of the Shares.

(a) The Company agrees to issue and sell the Underwritten Shares to the several Underwriters as provided in this underwriting agreement (this “Agreement”), and each Underwriter, on the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements set forth herein and subject to the conditions set forth herein, agrees, severally and not jointly, to purchase at a price per share of $[•] (the “Purchase Price”) from the Company the respective number of Underwritten Shares set forth opposite such Underwriter’s name in Schedule 1 hereto.

In addition, the Company agrees to issue and sell the Option Shares to the several Underwriters as provided in this Agreement, and the Underwriters, on the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements set forth herein and subject to the conditions set forth herein, shall have the option to purchase, severally and not jointly, from the Company the Option Shares at the Purchase Price less an amount per share equal to any dividends or distributions declared by the Company and payable on the Underwritten Shares but not payable on the Option Shares. If any Option Shares are to be purchased, the number of Option Shares to be purchased by each Underwriter shall be the number of Option Shares which bears the same ratio to the aggregate number of Option Shares being purchased as the number of Underwritten Shares set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter in Schedule 1 hereto (or such number increased as set forth in Section 10 hereof) bears to the aggregate number of Underwritten Shares being purchased from the Company by the several Underwriters, subject, however, to such adjustments to eliminate any fractional Shares as the Representatives in their sole discretion shall make.

 

 

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The Underwriters may exercise the option to purchase Option Shares at any time in whole, or from time to time in part, on or before the thirtieth day following the date of the Prospectus, by written notice from the Representatives to the Company. Such notice shall set forth the aggregate number of Option Shares as to which the option is being exercised and the date and time when the Option Shares are to be delivered and paid for, which may be the same date and time as the Closing Date (as hereinafter defined) but shall not be earlier than the Closing Date nor later than the tenth full business day (as hereinafter defined) after the date of such notice (unless such time and date are postponed in accordance with the provisions of Section 10 hereof). Any such notice shall be given at least two business days prior to the date and time of delivery specified therein.

(b) The Company understands that the Underwriters intend to make a public offering of the Shares, and initially to offer the Shares on the terms set forth in the Pricing Disclosure Package. The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Underwriters may offer and sell Shares to or through any affiliate of an Underwriter.

(c) Payment for the Shares shall be made by wire transfer in immediately available funds to the account specified by the Company to the Representatives, in the case of the Underwritten Shares, at the offices of Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, 1600 El Camino Real, Menlo Park, California 94025, at 10:00 A.M. New York City time on [•], 2021, or at such other time or place on the same or such other date, not later than the fifth business day thereafter, as the Representatives and the Company may agree upon in writing or, in the case of the Option Shares, on the date and at the time and place specified by the Representatives in the written notice of the Underwriters’ election to purchase such Option Shares. The time and date of such payment for the Underwritten Shares is referred to herein as the “Closing Date,” and the time and date for such payment for the Option Shares, if other than the Closing Date, is herein referred to as the “Additional Closing Date.”

Payment for the Shares to be purchased on the Closing Date or the Additional Closing Date, as the case may be, shall be made against delivery to the Representatives for the respective accounts of the several Underwriters of the Shares to be purchased on such date or the Additional Closing Date, as the case may be, with any transfer taxes payable in connection with the sale of such Shares duly paid by the Company. Delivery of the Shares shall be made through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) unless the Representatives shall otherwise instruct.

(d) The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Representatives and the other Underwriters are acting solely in the capacity of an arm’s length contractual counterparty to the Company with respect to the offering of Shares contemplated hereby (including in connection with determining the terms of the offering) and not as a financial advisor or a fiduciary to, or an agent of, the Company or any other person. Additionally, neither the Representatives nor any other Underwriter is advising the Company or any other person as to any legal, tax, investment, accounting or regulatory matters in any jurisdiction. The Company shall consult with its own advisors concerning such matters and shall be responsible for making its own independent

 

3


investigation and appraisal of the transactions contemplated hereby, and neither the Representatives nor the other Underwriters shall have any responsibility or liability to the Company with respect thereto. Any review by the Representatives and the other Underwriters of the Company, the transactions contemplated hereby or other matters relating to such transactions will be performed solely for the benefit of the Underwriters and shall not be on behalf of the Company.

3. Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to each Underwriter that:

(a) Preliminary Prospectus. No order preventing or suspending the use of any Preliminary Prospectus has been issued by the Commission, and each Preliminary Prospectus included in the Pricing Disclosure Package, at the time of filing thereof, complied in all material respects with the Securities Act, and no Preliminary Prospectus, at the time of filing thereof, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided that the Company makes no representation or warranty with respect to any statements or omissions made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to any Underwriter furnished to the Company in writing by such Underwriter through the Representatives expressly for use in any Preliminary Prospectus, it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by any Underwriter consists of the information described as such in Section 7(b) hereof.

(b) Pricing Disclosure Package. The Pricing Disclosure Package as of the Applicable Time did not, and as of the Closing Date and as of the Additional Closing Date, as the case may be, will not, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided that the Company makes no representation or warranty with respect to any statements or omissions made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to any Underwriter furnished to the Company in writing by such Underwriter through the Representatives expressly for use in such Pricing Disclosure Package, it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by any Underwriter consists of the information described as such in Section 7(b) hereof. No statement of material fact included in the Prospectus has been omitted from the Pricing Disclosure Package and no statement of material fact included in the Pricing Disclosure Package that is required to be included in the Prospectus has been omitted therefrom.

(c) Issuer Free Writing Prospectus. Other than the Registration Statement, the Preliminary Prospectus and the Prospectus, the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Underwriters in their capacity as such) has not prepared, made, used, authorized, approved or referred to and will not prepare, make, use, authorize, approve or refer to any “written communication” (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy the Shares (each such communication by the Company or its agents and representatives (other than a communication referred to in clause (i) below) an “Issuer Free Writing

 

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Prospectus”) other than (i) any document not constituting a prospectus pursuant to Section 2(a)(10)(a) of the Securities Act or Rule 134 under the Securities Act or (ii) the documents listed on Annex A hereto, each electronic road show and any other written communications approved in writing in advance by the Representatives. Each such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus complies in all material respects with the Securities Act, has been or will be (within the time period specified in Rule 433) filed in accordance with the Securities Act (to the extent required thereby) and does not conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Pricing Disclosure Package, and, when taken together with all other Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses and the Preliminary Prospectus accompanying, or delivered prior to delivery of, such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, did not, and as of the Closing Date and as of the Additional Closing Date, as the case may be, will not, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided that the Company makes no representation or warranty with respect to any statements or omissions made in each such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or Preliminary Prospectus in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to any Underwriter furnished to the Company in writing by such Underwriter through the Representatives expressly for use in such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or Preliminary Prospectus, it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by any Underwriter consists of the information described as such in Section 7(b) hereof.

(d) Emerging Growth Company. From the time of initial confidential submission of the Registration Statement to the Commission (or, if earlier, the first date on which the Company engaged directly or through any person authorized to act on its behalf in any Testing-the-Waters Communication undertaken in reliance on Section 5(d) of the Securities Act) through the date hereof, the Company has been and is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”). “Testing-the-Waters Communication” means any oral or written communication with potential investors undertaken in reliance on either Section 5(d) of, or Rule 163B under, the Securities Act.

(e) Testing-the-Waters Materials. The Company (i) has not alone engaged in any Testing-the-Waters Communications other than Testing-the-Waters Communications with the consent of the Representatives (x) with entities that are qualified institutional buyers (“QIBs”) within the meaning of Rule 144A under the Securities Act or institutions that are accredited investors within the meaning of Rule 501(a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(7) or (a)(8) under the Securities Act (“IAIs”) and otherwise in compliance with the requirements of Section 5(d) of the Securities Act or (y) with entities that the Company reasonably believed to be QIBs or IAIs and otherwise in compliance with the requirements of Rule 163B under the Securities Act and (ii) except as set forth in Exhibit, A, the Company has not authorized anyone to engage in Testing-the-Waters Communications. The Company reconfirms the authorization set forth in Exhibit A hereto. The Company has not distributed or approved for distribution any Written Testing-the-Waters Communications (as defined below) other than those listed on Annex B hereto. “Written Testing-the-Waters Communication” means any Testing-the-Waters Communication that is a written communication within the meaning of Rule 405 under

 

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the Securities Act. Any individual Written Testing-the-Waters Communication does not conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Pricing Disclosure Package, complied in all material respects with the Securities Act, and when taken together with the Pricing Disclosure Package as of the Applicable Time, did not, and as of the Closing Date and as of the Additional Closing Date, as the case may be, will not, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(f) Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Commission. No order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement has been issued by the Commission, and no proceeding for that purpose or pursuant to Section 8A of the Securities Act against the Company or related to the offering of the Shares has been initiated or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened by the Commission; as of the applicable effective date of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, the Registration Statement and any such post-effective amendment complied and will comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act, and did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading; and as of the date of the Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto and as of the Closing Date and as of the Additional Closing Date, as the case may be, the Prospectus will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided that the Company makes no representation or warranty with respect to any statements or omissions made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to any Underwriter furnished to the Company in writing by such Underwriter through the Representatives expressly for use in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto, it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by any Underwriter consists of the information described as such in Section 7(b) hereof.

(g) Incorporated Documents. The documents incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Pricing Disclosure Package, when they were filed with the Commission conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”), and none of such documents contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(h) Financial Statements. The financial statements (including the related notes thereto) of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and present fairly in all material

 

6


respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations and the changes in their cash flows for the periods specified; such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) in the United States applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby, except in the case of unaudited interim financial statements, which are subject to normal year-end adjustments and do not contain certain footnotes as permitted by the applicable rules of the Commission, and any supporting schedules included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement present fairly in all material respects the information required to be stated therein; the other financial information included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus has been derived from the accounting records of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries and presents fairly in all material respects the information shown thereby; all disclosures included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) (if any) comply with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K of the Securities Act, to the extent applicable; and the pro forma financial information and the related notes thereto included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus have been prepared in accordance with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, in all material respects and the assumptions underlying such pro forma financial information are reasonable and are set forth in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

(i) No Material Adverse Change. Except in each case as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, since the date of the most recent financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, (i) there has not been any change in the capital stock (other than the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants described as outstanding in, and the grant of options and awards under existing equity incentive plans described in, the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus), short-term debt or long-term debt of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company on any class of capital stock, or any material adverse change, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change, in or affecting the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole; (ii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has entered into any transaction or agreement (whether or not in the ordinary course of business) that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole; and (iii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has sustained any loss or interference with its business that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole and that is either from fire, explosion, flood, pandemic or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor disturbance or dispute or any action, order or decree of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority.

 

 

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(j) Organization and Good Standing. The Company and each of its subsidiaries have been duly organized and are validly existing and in good standing under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization, are duly qualified to do business and are in good standing in each jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such qualification, and have all power and authority necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct the businesses in which they are engaged, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or on the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement (a “Material Adverse Effect”). The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21 to the Registration Statement.

(k) Capitalization. The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus under the heading “Capitalization”; all the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and non-assessable and are not subject to any pre-emptive or similar rights that have not been duly waived or satisfied; except as described in or expressly contemplated by the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, there are no outstanding rights (including, without limitation, pre-emptive rights that have not been duly waived or satisfied), warrants or options to acquire, or instruments convertible into or exchangeable for, any shares of capital stock or other equity interest in the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any contract, commitment, agreement, understanding or arrangement of any kind relating to the issuance of any capital stock of the Company or any such subsidiary, any such convertible or exchangeable securities or any such rights, warrants or options; the capital stock of the Company conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus; and all the outstanding shares of capital stock or other equity interests of each subsidiary owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable and are owned directly or indirectly by the Company, free and clear of any lien, charge, encumbrance, security interest, restriction on voting or transfer or any other claim of any third party.

(l) Stock Options. With respect to the stock options (the “Stock Options”) granted pursuant to the stock-based compensation plans of the Company and its subsidiaries (the “Company Stock Plans”), (i) each Stock Option intended to qualify as an “incentive stock option” under Section 422 of the Code so qualifies, (ii) each grant of a Stock Option was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such Stock Option was by its terms to be effective (the “Grant Date”) by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder

 

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approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto, (iii) each such grant was made in accordance with the terms of the Company Stock Plans, any applicable provisions of the Exchange Act and all other applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including the applicable rules of the Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Nasdaq Market”) and any other exchange on which Company securities are traded, and (iv) each such grant was properly accounted for in accordance with GAAP in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company. The Company has not knowingly granted, and there is no and has been no policy or practice of the Company of granting, Stock Options prior to, or otherwise coordinating the grant of Stock Options with, the release or other public announcement of material information regarding the Company or its subsidiaries or their results of operations or prospects.

(m) Due Authorization. The Company has full right, power and authority to execute and deliver this Agreement and to perform its obligations hereunder; and all action required to be taken for the due and proper authorization, execution and delivery by it of this Agreement and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby has been duly and validly taken.

(n) Underwriting Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

(o) The Shares. The Shares to be issued and sold by the Company hereunder have been duly authorized by the Company and, when issued and delivered and paid for as provided herein, will be duly and validly issued, will be fully paid and nonassessable and will conform to the descriptions thereof in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus; and the issuance of the Shares is not subject to any preemptive or similar rights.

(p) [Reserved.]

(q) No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any property or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory

authority, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(r) No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Shares and the consummation by the Company of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus will not (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, result in the termination, modification or acceleration of, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (iii) result in the violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation, default, lien, charge or encumbrance that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(s) No Consents Required. No consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Shares and the consummation by the Company of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except for the registration of the Shares under the Securities Act and such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”), the Nasdaq Market and under applicable state securities laws in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Shares by the Underwriters.

(t) Legal Proceedings. There are no legal, governmental or regulatory investigations, actions, demands, claims, suits, arbitrations, inquiries or proceedings (“Actions”) pending to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is or may reasonably be expected to become a party or to which any property of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is or may be the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; to the knowledge of the Company, no such Actions are threatened or contemplated by any governmental or regulatory authority or threatened by others; and (i) there are no current or pending Actions that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package or the Prospectus that are not so described in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and (ii) there are no statutes, regulations or contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package or the Prospectus that are not so filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

 

 

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(u) Independent Accountants. Ernst & Young LLP, who has certified certain financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries within the applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) and as required by the Securities Act.

(v) Title to Real and Personal Property. The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple (in the case of real property) to, or have valid rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real and personal property that are material to the respective businesses of the Company and its subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, claims and defects and imperfections of title except those that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its subsidiaries or (ii) could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(w) Intellectual Property. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, (i) the Company and its subsidiaries own or have the right to use all patents, trademarks, service marks, trade names, domain names and other source indicators, copyrights, copyrightable works, know-how, trade secrets, systems, procedures, proprietary or confidential information and all other intellectual property, industrial property and proprietary rights, and all registrations and applications for registration of, and all goodwill associated with, any of the foregoing (collectively, “Intellectual Property”), in each case used or held for use in, or, to the knowledge of the Company, necessary for, the conduct of their respective businesses as conducted or proposed to be conducted in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus; (ii) to the knowledge of the Company, the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ conduct of their respective businesses as currently conducted or as proposed to be conducted in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package or the Prospectus does not and will not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate, and has not infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated, any Intellectual Property of any third party in any material respect; (iii) there is no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by any third party (x) alleging that the Company or any of its subsidiaries has infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated the Intellectual Property rights of any third party, or (y) challenging the inventorship, ownership, validity, scope or enforceability of, or any rights of the Company or any of its subsidiaries in, any Intellectual Property owned by or licensed to the Company or any of its subsidiaries; (iv) to the knowledge of the Company, no Intellectual Property owned by or exclusively licensed to the Company or any of its subsidiaries has been adjudged invalid or unenforceable and all such Intellectual Property is valid and enforceable; (v) each agreement pursuant to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries obtains any license or other rights to any Intellectual Property is a valid and binding agreement of the Company and its subsidiaries and is in full force and effect, and none of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or, to the knowledge of the Company, any other party thereto, is in default or breach under any terms of any such agreement and, to

 

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the knowledge of the Company no event or circumstance has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute any event of default thereunder; (vi) to the knowledge of the Company no third party has infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated any Intellectual Property owned by or exclusively licensed to the Company or any of its subsidiaries; (vii) the Company and its subsidiaries have in all material respects taken reasonable steps in accordance with normal industry practice to maintain the confidentiality of all Intellectual Property, including requiring employees, contractors, consultants and other third parties who receive such Intellectual Property to execute appropriate confidentiality agreements; (viii) to the knowledge of the Company, the Company, its subsidiaries, and counsel for the Company and its subsidiaries have complied with the duties of candor, good faith and disclosure, as required by the United States Patent and Trademark Office and all foreign offices having similar requirements, with respect to the prosecution of the patents and patent applications owned by or exclusively licensed to the Company or its subsidiaries and for which such duty is owed; and (ix) to the knowledge of the Company, all current and former employees and consultants and other parties involved in the development of Intellectual Property for the Company or any of its subsidiaries have signed agreements with the Company or its subsidiaries, pursuant to which the Company or its subsidiaries either (A) have obtained, or have the right or option to obtain, ownership of and are the exclusive owners of such Intellectual Property, or (B) have obtained a valid right to exploit such Intellectual Property, sufficient for the conduct of their respective businesses as currently conducted or as proposed to be conducted in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package or the Prospectus.

(x) No Undisclosed Relationships. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders, customers, suppliers or other affiliates of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the other, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and that is not so described in such documents and in the Pricing Disclosure Package.

(y) Investment Company Act. The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, will not be required to register as an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (collectively, the “Investment Company Act”).

(z) Taxes. The Company and its subsidiaries have paid all federal, state, local and foreign taxes and filed all tax returns required to be paid or filed through the date hereof, except in each case, as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; and except as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, there is no tax deficiency that has been, or would reasonably be expected to be, asserted against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets. The charges, accruals and reserves on the books of the Company in respect of any income and corporation tax liability for any years not finally determined are in conformity with GAAP and are adequate to meet any assessments or re-assessments for additional income tax for any years not finally determined, except to the extent of any inadequacies that would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

 

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